Analysis of the objectives and functions of the enterprise management system (organization)
The objectives and principles of the formation and analysis of the structure of the objectives and functions of management systems. In implementing this enlarged stage, it is necessary to ensure the completeness of determining the goals and functions of the enterprise (organization) at the appropriate stage of its development, their importance, complexity of implementation, frequency of treatment and other criteria, and to formulate the structure of goals and functions for the selected level of the management system (the administration of the enterprise or the organization as a whole, the level of production, the workshop, etc.) and whether the study activity.
The obtained structure of goals and functions can serve as a basis for developing the organizational structure of the enterprise, making decisions about the allocation of financial, material, personnel and other resources, establishing additional payments for performing organizational management functions to employees, combining these functions with the main production responsibilities (which often has place in small enterprises).
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Based on a comparative analysis of the methods of structuring goals, considered in Ch. 5, and a generalized methodology for the formation and analysis of the structures of the goals and functions of the management systems (Figure 5.22), which provides for the possibility of using various structuring techniques in the formation of the initial version of the structure of the FT and the choice of techniques in specific conditions, taking into account the specifics of enterprises or organizations, the period of their development , it is possible to develop a methodology for specific enterprises (organizations), such as those described in Ch. 5.
The use of structuring techniques based on various concepts allows to ensure the completeness of the analysis of the goals and functions of the enterprise management system (organization) to the accuracy of the adopted concept, which is important to take into account when developing specific methods.
An example of a generalized structure of the DF obtained using various techniques is given in the next section.
For the formation of options for the structure of the objectives of the projected system of organizational management, an automated dialogue procedure for the analysis of goals and functions, the idea of which is set forth in Ch. 7.
When managing large enterprises, associations, universities, it is impossible to build a single tree-like hierarchical structure, it is necessary to use multi-level hierarchical representations such as strata, echelons.
In implementing the second stage of the goal analysis methodology (see Figure 5.22), expert assessments (sub-step 2.1.1), including methods for organizing complex examinations (especially in multi-level systems), indirect quantitative assessments (sub-step 2.1.2) and information assessment of the degree of integrity (sub-step 2.2), which is interpreted in relation to target structures as a criterion for the system's controllability in providing freedom to entities that implement subgoals and functions, and for echeloned structures (such as a holding) can be treated as a power ь Coordination of enterprises and organizations that are part of the holding.
For the implementation of evaluation sub-stages, appropriate automated procedures are developed or used.
Examples of a generalized structure of the goals and functions of management systems. In Ch. 5 gave examples of structures of goals and functions constructed using various methods of structuring the FT. At the same time, in real conditions, as a rule, form a generalized methodology that combines the signs of structuring several.
In particular, in the new conditions of a multistructured economy, the introduction of market principles, the enterprises encountered problems that required greater attention to the revision of the company's interaction with the constantly changing market environment - with the supersystem, which now acts not only as a higher-level government, as a consumer of products, with a competitive current environment. In order to fully reveal the components of the space for initiating goals, it is advisable to use other structuring techniques.
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In Fig. 8.3 shows an example of a generalized structure, on the upper level of which a technique based on the concept of a system that takes into account its interaction with the environment is used, and the branches obtained on the basis of the "goal initiation space" sign are formed using other methods.
The supersystem is structured using the Akoffa - Emery technique, according to which the branches named in this technique are conventionally: "abundance (I)", & quot; truth (P) & quot ;, good (D) & quot; and & quot; beauty (K) & quot ;. These components are interpreted taking into account the specifics of a particular enterprise (organization).
However, depending on the nature of the organization, not all the components can be taken into account. For example, in Fig. 8.3 when structuring an NS for an industrial enterprise, the "K" branch may not exist, and if a theater or restaurant were considered, this component would mean the influence of the organization on the development of the culture of the region and the country. At the same time, some components can initiate several sub-goals, such as the & quot; D & quot; initiates two subgoals - 1.3 and 1.4. Subordinate systems can be determined on the basis of experience using a technique based on the dual definition of the Uyomov system. When structuring the actual environment, Kolosov's method was used, i.e. the allocation of components: friendly (friendly), competitive (Konk) and indifferent (Bez) environment.
Actually, the management system is structured using a methodology based on the concept of activity, according to which the components distinguish in the structure: the analysis of "goals and functions (C)", "content and form (SIF)", implemented in organizational structure (organizational structure) of the organization, & quot; methods (M) & quot; (this component is interpreted as a system of normative and methodological support of enterprise management); & quot; means (Cp) & quot ;, this component is interpreted, as a rule, as the development of an automated enterprise management system (MIS); & quot; inputs (IN) & quot; - Factors affecting the establishment and operation of the enterprise. In this case, the components of U and SiF are combined in component 4.1.
Forming the structure of goals and functions of the district management system. The formation of this structure is based on a technique that takes into account the interaction of the system with the environment (Figure 8.4).
Then, to structure the first of the highlighted directions characterizing the interaction of the district management system with the & quot; supersystem & quot; (which covers the territory and the population), the Akoffa - Emery method is used to uncover the versatile spheres necessary for ensuring the vital activity of the area and its inhabitants (Figure 8.5, a).
Examples of a more detailed structuring of the first branch of the structure of the DF in Fig. 8.5 are shown in Fig. 8.6.
When structuring the second branch of Fig. 8.4 & subordinated systems & quot; a classifier of activities, well-worked out in the methodology of Koshar - Uyomov (Figure 8.5, b).
In the current environment, friendly, competitive and indifferent components are singled out (see Figure 8.5, c) (the concept of VG Kolosova).
And the last branch of the "proper control system" (containing sub-goals and functions that ensure the survival and development of the district and its administration) is structured using a methodology based on the concept of activity (Figure 8.5, d).
With the further structuring of functions in different branches of the structure, the features of the structuring recommended for different levels of the system in Fig. 8.6, in the methods used and the experience of the employees of the district administration.
Note that the representation of the structure of goals and functions in the form of several figures (Figures 8.4-8.6) is convenient when it is formed (the structure of different branches can be assigned by the relevant departments of the Administration), and subsequently it can be formalized in the form of a single structure in Fig. 8.3.
Most of the components are known to experienced managers. However, their visual presentation and placement on one level helps to realize that they are all equivalent and only simultaneous implementation of programs in all directions gives an effect of integrity, ensures the quality of life and development of the region, region, country. At the same time, in different periods of development, it is necessary to assess the relative importance of functions within their own level and make decisions about financial, material, personnel support for the lagging areas of the district's activities, and the above structure provides the possibility of such an assessment.
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