Historical stages of globalization.
We should pay attention to one more aspect related to modern studies of globalization. In most publications, the process of globalization correlates only with the modern period of social development. At the same time, the very etymology of the concept & quot; global & quot; (from the "globe") directly follows from the formation of this type of worldview, which is based on the idea of the sphericity of the Earth, and the notion that is the basis for the practical actions of people and social groups. Therefore, the process of globalization is, first of all, the transition from local to global social spaces, both in the public consciousness and in social practice.
"Globalization is a new word describing the old process: the integration of the world economy, which began five centuries ago, after the beginning of the European colonial era. But in the last thirty years the process has accelerated after the explosive growth of computer technology, the destruction of barriers to the movement of goods and capital and the increase in the political and economic power of transnational monopolies " .
One of the notable concepts on the way to this transition is the concept of Oikoumeny. The term was introduced by the ancient Greek geographer Hecatei of Miletus (550-490 BC) to designate the known part of the earth to the Greeks and originally designated land, inhabited by Greek tribes, later - the land inhabited and known to mankind as a whole. Thus, the expansion of the Oykumena to the size of the entire planet has gradually led to a system of processes in various spheres of social life, called "globalization".
So, the epoch of the Great geographical discoveries (XV-XVII centuries), firstly, became a direct embodiment of the ideas about the sphericity of the Earth, and secondly, it facilitated the process of globalization of social space. Technological foundations of human communication applied to the epoch in question (first of all, technical means of navigation) made it possible to make the social space relatively unified and continuous. However, social time in this era remains local. A typical example: J. Bruno and F. Bacon are contemporaries, but the former is called the last philosopher of the Renaissance, and the latter is the first modern philosopher.
The term & quot; globalization & quot; institutionalized by the mid-1990s, began to be used to refer to the growing interdependence of all regions of the world. As a methodological basis for analyzing globalization, we particularly note the work of such authors who consider globalization from a wide perspective, highlighting a number of its main aspects: economic, technological, ecological, demographic, political, information, cultural.
This approach is based on the fact that in the most general form the content of globalization is the erosion of barriers for the movement of artifacts and structural components of society: information, capital, real and symbolic products, goods, services, labor, etc. The result of erosion is transnational exchange ideas, preferences, values, behavioral stereotypes, cultural patterns. The image of the world varies among the representatives of different social communities and groups (and universalizes, & quot; averages & quot;).
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