Theoretical Foundations of Metrology
Metrology goals and objectives
Measurements are one of the most important ways of knowing nature by a person. They give a quantitative description of the surrounding world, revealing to the person the laws governing nature. All branches of technology could not exist without a detailed system of measurements that determine how all technological processes, control and management, as well as properties and quality of products.
The branch of science that studies dimensions is metrology. The word & quot; metrology & quot; is formed from two Greek words: metron - measure and logos - teaching. The literal translation is the doctrine of measures.
For a long time, metrology remained basically a descriptive science of the various measures and relationships between them. Since the end of XIX century. Thanks to the progress of the natural sciences, metrology has developed significantly. A major role in the development of modern metrology as one of the sciences of the physical cycle was played by DI Mendeleyev, who supervised the national metrology during the period 1892-1907.
Metrology is the science of measurements, methods and means of ensuring their unity and ways to achieve the required accuracy. It is based on the achievements of natural, technical and social sciences.
Metrology objects are measurements of physical quantities and methods and means of ensuring the uniformity of measurements and the required accuracy.
In modern society, metrology plays a big role. This is due to the fact that virtually no sphere of human activity, wherever the measurement results were used. With the help of measurements, information on the state of production, economic and social processes is obtained. Accuracy and reliability of measurements ensure the correctness of decision-making at all levels of management. There are a large number of diverse quantities and an even greater number of units of these quantities. Such diversity creates serious difficulties in international trade relations and the exchange of scientific information.
The measurements taken can be used in valuation activities if they meet the following conditions:
1) the measurement results are expressed in established (legalized) units;
2) the accuracy of the measurement results must be known with the required specified accuracy;
3) the accuracy indicators should provide the optimal solution in accordance with the chosen criteria for the problem for which the results are intended (the results of the measurements are obtained with the required accuracy).
If the measurement results satisfy the first two conditions, then they know everything that you need to know to make an informed decision about the possibility of using them.
Such results can be compared, they can be used in various combinations, by different people and organizations.
In this case, they say that the uniformity of measurements is ensured, in which their results are expressed in legal units, and the errors do not exceed the specified limits with a given probability.
The third of the above conditions states that insufficient measurement accuracy leads to an increase in control errors, to economic losses, and overstated ones - requires the cost of purchasing more expensive measuring instruments.
Therefore, this is not only a metrological, but also an economic condition, since it is associated with costs and losses when performing measurements that are economic criteria.
If all three conditions are met, then they speak of metrological provision, which means the establishment and application of scientific and organizational bases, technical means, rules and norms necessary to achieve unity and the required accuracy of measurements.
To implement the provisions of most US laws (for example, Federal laws on technical regulation, consumer protection, etc.), it is necessary to use reliable and comparable information obtained from measurements.
Effective cooperation with other countries, joint development of scientific and technical programs (for example, in the field of space exploration, environmental protection, etc.), the further development of international trade require mutual trust in information on the results of measurements.
This information is essentially the main object of exchange in the joint solution of scientific and technical problems, the basis of mutual settlements in trade transactions, the conclusion of contracts for the supply of materials, products, equipment.
A unified approach to measurements guarantees mutual understanding, the possibility of unification and standardization of methods and means of measurement, mutual recognition of the results of conformity assessment of products in the international commodity exchange system.
The fundamental goal of metrology is disclosed in the definition - ensuring the uniformity of measurements with the required accuracy. The result of achieving this goal is a measurement that accurately reflects the quantitative characteristic of the measured quantity.
In order to achieve this goal, the following tasks are solved in metrology:
• establishment, application and improvement of measurement standards of units of physical quantities;
• monitoring the state of the environment;
• control of material and technical resources;
• medical care of the country;
• ensuring defense and security;
• development and improvement of means and methods of measurement to improve their accuracy;
• further development of international trade;
• Improvement of the regulatory and legal framework for metrological activities.
In its field, metrology is based on the following principles, unity, uniformity and scientific validity of measurements.
Unity of measurements assumes such a state of measurement, in which their results are expressed in legal units of values, and the measurement errors do not exceed the established limits with a given probability. This principle is achieved through the use of uniform units of measurement, for example SI, used in most countries, ensures the uniformity of measurements.
Uniformity of measurements is a state of measurement when they are graded in legal units, and their metrological characteristics are in accordance with established norms.
The scientific validity of measurements is the development and (or) application of measuring instruments, methods, techniques, techniques and is based on scientific experiment and analysis.
This principle allows us to determine and reliably prove the need for the required accuracy of measurements (accuracy class) and the possibility of using specific measuring instruments and techniques, taking into account the characteristics of the measured object.
Metrology is divided into theoretical, applied and legislative.
Theoretical metrology deals with issues of basic research, the creation of system of units, physical constants, the development of new measurement methods.
Applied metrology deals with the practical applications of theoretical research results in various fields of activity within the framework of metrology.
Legislative metrology includes a set of interrelated rules and norms aimed at ensuring the uniformity of measurements, which are elevated to the rank of legal provisions (authorized by the state authorities), are binding and under the control of the state./p>
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