Stylistic marking of homonyms
The ambiguity of vocabulary is an inexhaustible source of updating the meaning of words, an unusual, unexpected reinterpretation of words. Under the artist's pen in every word, as NV Gogol wrote, characterizing AS Pushkin's language, an "abyss of space" is revealed; every word is immense, like a poet. " If we take into account that many-valued words make up the bulk of the vocabulary of the Russian language, then without exaggeration we can say that the ability of words to polysemy generates the whole imaginative energy of speech.
Let's dwell on the use of multi-valued words as a means of expression in their direct values. Having thus limited the study of the stylistic functions of polysemantic words, we can simultaneously speak of homonyms, since the use of polysemantic words and homonyms in artistic speech, despite the fundamental difference in polysemy and homonymy, often gives the same stylistic result.
If a word has several meanings, its expressive possibilities increase. Writers and publicists find in a polysemy a source of vivid emotionality, without even resorting to metaphorization. For example, a multivalued word can be repeatedly used in the text, which, however, appears in different meanings ( Poet - from afar Turns speech./Poet - far winds speech (M. Tsvetaeva); From the zone radiation into the zone of bureaucracy (headline of V. Mirolevich's essay) ).
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Along with many-valued words, homonyms are often involved in word games. In the case of homonymy between words, only sound identity is established, and there are no meaning associations, so the clash of homonyms is always unexpected, which creates great stylistic possibilities for their playing. In addition, the use of homonyms in one phrase, emphasizing the values of consonant words, gives speech expression ( The world needs peace! (slogan); Whatever is, but wants to eat (pogov. ), Pound of Sugar and Pound (title of the article)).
As a means of a peculiar sound game, homonymous rhymes are used. They were masterfully applied by V. Ya. Bryusov:
You are the white swans fed,
Throwing the weight of the black braid ...
I sailed alongside; the helmsman came together
The sunset beam was strange braid.
... Suddenly swans rushed couple ...
I do not know whose was the fault ...
Sunset behind the haze of the couple,
Aleya, like the flow of fault ...
In many-valued words and homonyms, jokes, puns are constructed, for example:
Children are the flowers of life. Do not let them, however, dissolve; Women are like the theses: they need protection (E. Mild); Requires a person who knows the language well, for gluing stamps; Two lone photographers will urgently remove the bathroom (from the "Literary Gazette"),
In puns, the direct and portable meanings of a word are combined, resulting in an unexpected semantic shift. The thought, expressed in a punning form, looks brighter, sharper; the writer pays attention to the word being played.
Puns are often based on various sound coincidences. It can be actually homonyms ( The tram was a field scolding ), omoform ( Maybe/ - old -/and did not need a nanny,/maybe her thought seemed to me went, /only/horse/rushed,/stood up ,/rzhanula/and went (V. Mayakovsky)), homophones ("Iskra" plays with a spark (headline sports review)), finally, a coincidence in the sound of the word and a few words ( Above him alone, all halo , nimbus. More thorns over it would be (K. Simonov).Puns can be used by writers as a means of mocking the characters, who do not pay attention to the collision of different meanings of polysemantic words ( On the half of the deceased, one does not sit (M. Bulgakov)). On the pun constructed ironic responses to readers' letters in the "Literary Gazette" (U you have such a strange humor that without a clue I do not understand where you have to laugh. - Only in specially designated ), jokes, placed on the 16th page ( He did something that his colleagues paled before him: There is no such beaten topic that could not be hit again ; What a pity that the ability to share remained only an advantage the simplest ).
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We should not forget about the possibility of two-sided interpretation of polysemantic words and words with homonyms, although the context usually specifies their meaning. It is impossible to allow close proximity of polysemantic words, since their collision generates an inappropriate comic ( The water system often fails, and the repairmen have no system, the increased electricity consumption is associated with significant costs ). Even worse, if a multivalued word is used, the ambiguity of the statement arises. See, for example: People saw in it good the leader - the word good can have a value of 'good' and the meaning of 'doing good to others, sympathetic'. The following is also ambiguous: "In the bushes of the Mozhaysky district, trade union meetings were held. Using the word bush, the author had in mind, of course, a group association of enterprises, but a pun was obtained.
M. Gorky, editing the manuscripts of novice authors, paid particular attention to the unsuccessful use of polysemantic words. For example, about the sentence & quot; Fraction the machine gun & quot; he ironically remarked: "The simple-hearted reader can ponder how it is - shoots bullets,
Does it break up with a fraction? & quot; The pun here arises from the fact that a polysemantic word, used in a figurative sense, is perceived by the reader in the main, direct meaning, which manifests itself under the influence of the context. From these blunders are not insured and modern authors.
Let's consider examples of stylistic editing of sentences, in which, because of the unsuccessful use of a multi-valued word or a word having a homonym, there were puns:
1. Our enterprise represented scientific and technical exhibition abroad.
1. Recently, our company organized a scientific and technical exhibition abroad.
2. We have a lot of dogs in the kennel, we basically eat at the expense of club dog breeding.
2. We have a lot of dogs in our kennel, and we get replenishment mainly from the dog breeding club.
3. Archaeologists have noticed that the dead from the northern burial echo with the deceased from the southern burial.
3. Archaeologists have noticed much in common in the northern and southern burials.
In the first example, during editing, the ambiguity of a statement was eliminated by lexical substitution of a multi-valued word; in the second and third examples, it was necessary to redo the sentences to avoid the undesirable pun.
If you use multi-valued words and words that have homonyms, speech insufficiency often causes confusion in the statement. See, for example: Our chess player fell behind from rival in development. Here are some more examples from the headlines: Released for lack of principle i> (it was necessary to specify: ... from the position held ), Work without complaints; Marriage is to blame. Similar errors occur in advertising materials: The most reliable way to multiply (advertising copying technology).
Inattentive attitude to the word is often found in colloquial speech; so, at the cash register of the store you can hear: Knock me the brains; in the clinic: Remove the skull and sign up for the surgeon , etc. Random puns can arise as a result of individual author's homonymy: In summer, the number of passengers on electric trains will increase due to truck farmers and sadists (the last word as occasionalism is formed from the noun garden, but in the language his homonym with a criminal meaning is known); To the attention of the homeowners of crapped homes: the check will be on May 16 ( houses connected to the gas pipeline ).
Similar puns that create the absurdity of a statement usually have very short texts, for example, ads, since the limited amount of information in them does not allow you to correctly interpret multivalued words: From June the aircraft will fly with stops; Belt orders are not accepted by the shop: loins are sick.
The inappropriate comic that occurs when words are used in speech that have homonyms, makes it necessary to revise the terminology. So, when ordering the industry terminology, it was suggested to replace the terms Dutsenberg gut, dirty cauldron, copa copra, ice skull, parasitic gear , etc., but until now there are such names for professions as scuffler, tweaker, bender, which the layman causes unwanted associations.
The acronyms and ambiguity of the statement can be given by abbreviations with lexical homonyms, for example: Airborne monitoring , , MNI, MUKHIN (names of institutions), etc. Some of them disappeared after the reorganization of the relevant institutions. So, there were no abbreviations OLYA (Department of Literature and Language of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), IVAN (Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences). However, managing the process of creating complex words is not always possible. This is evidenced by the fact that the Russian language continues to be replenished with abbreviations that are homonymous to the words: AIST ( automatic information station ) , МАРС ( automatic recording and alarming machine ) , AMUR ( automatic control and control machine ).
Of course, you can not arbitrarily alter the abbreviations that have already been fixed in the language, but with stylistic editing, unsuccessful abbreviations can be opened, replaced with synonyms or words that are close in meaning. This is especially true for cases when there is ambiguity, a pun: Our team has established a creative contact with NMI ( with the Research Institute of Dairy Trade and Industry ) ; This is convincingly said by TIT ( television test table ) ; This issue can not be resolved without the participation of the FEI ( International Equestrian Federation ).
The cause of the ambiguity of the utterance can be the intralowal antonymy (antonymy of meanings). For example, suggestions are unclear: The doctor decided to leave (cancel or, on the contrary, recommend taking?); I listened to your comments (heard or, listening, did not take it?); Checking the depth of sowing, the agronomist walked the fifth section (checked the site or missed?). Ambiguously, the following statement is also true: The idea, abandoned by the master, has firmly captured me and my companions. The author used the word to throw in the meaning of 'expressing something abruptly and unexpectedly ', but the value' leave, leave 'pops up in memory. It was better to write: Me and my friends were captured by the idea that the master gave us.
The antonymy of meanings is inherent in many words, for example: view ('briefly read' - 'do not notice, skip on reading'), make a reservation ('specially in the preface' 'accidentally'), refuse ( refuse the request - refuse the inheritance ) , blow out ( candle, blast furnace ) and etc. Their use in speech requires special attention.
The cause of ambiguity in speech are various manifestations of homonymy and wider - coincidence in the sound of speech segments. Unwanted wordplay occurs when omoforming. For example, the ambiguous title: Again, simple - the word simple can be understood as both the verbal noun of the masculine gender in the nominative case, and as the full adjective of the male of the singular.
Often the cause of the ambiguity of the statement are the homographs, since in Russian graphics it is not customary to denote stress. Cp .: On the movement of poetic feelings, we unerringly learn Pushkin, Lermontov, Nekrasov, Blok ( know or know? ) ; We can ask the poet. "Where does his anti-world model come from Heinman or from Picasso?" - and the poet admits. & quot; From Picasso & quot; ( recognized or is recognized as i ?).
For a written speech, the homography presents a serious difficulty (cf .: Big some graduates stay in the village ( big or large? ) ; How did they get there fell? ( fell or fell? ))). In particular, the homography obliges to be attentive to certain features of the graphic image of the word. So, sometimes it's important to distinguish the letters e and e, that can change the meaning of the word ( All knew ( all or everything? )).
Omography often only obscures the meaning of the phrase, but it will also give it a comical sound. For example: Even warm, soaring strips of plywood come out from under the knife of the unit. It is worth reading the participle soaring (from the verb soar ) and it will be introduced that the strips of plywood hover somewhere under the ceiling. It would be better to write: From the knife of the unit there are still warm strips of plywood, from which the steam rises.
Omophony, unlike other related phenomena, as a rule, does not give rise to ambiguity in written speech. However, in some cases, ambiguity does arise. Thus, headings usually do not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters (all words are typed in one font), therefore, for example, the title of the article is not clear: EXPORTS LVOV. The ambiguity arose because of the coincidence of the city
Omophony can create a play on words and ambiguity in oral speech. For example, one can not expect a correct understanding of the meaning if the phrase is pronounced in the radio broadcast: In the similarity of two different plants, the equivalence of their properties ( germination and the content of the text provokes an error). In other cases, homophony does not affect the semantic side of speech, but the collision of consonant words gives the comic character a saying ( After a long and difficult work it was possible to obtain offspring from the white cupid brought from the Amur in our ponds). Omophony often occurs when words or combinations that are conditional names are used ( Recently, the Blue casket (needed: play & quot; The Blue Box )).
In oral speech, the meaning of a statement can be distorted due to incorrect division of the text into speech units. So, once schoolboys, memorizing the elegy KN Batyushkov & quot; Captive ", without delving into the meaning, read the line: Noises, noisy waves, Ron; it was heard: the wave of Myron. M. Gorky recommended that novice writers make sure that the final syllable of the word does not merge with the initial syllable of another word. He recalled that in random chords, a strange meaning is often caught, causing inappropriate associations. In the manuscript of one novice writer, Gorky drew attention to this phrase: Wet Vasili waded through the thicket of the bush and screamed frantically: "Brothers, pike puffed, by God" Not without irony, Gorky remarked: "The first pike is clearly superfluous."
Random play of words as a result of homophony is found even in classical poets. There have been several cases of homophony in the works of Alexander Pushkin ( Have you heard ly you after the grove of the voice of the nightly / Singer of Love, the singer of his sorrow ?). Malevolent critics deliberately pull out separate phrases from the context to emphasize the possibility of their double interpretation. For example: Souls wonderful gusts ... ( choke gusts?); With fire Prometheus ... ( crouch Prometheus?). Involuntary puns were found in M. Yu. Lermontov ( With lead in his chest lay immovable ), V. Ya. Bryusov (And step your land was burdensome ).
Omophony can arise when translating a work into another language. So, in translation of one poem there was a line: Is it possible to be indifferent to evil ? A careful attitude to the word will avoid such errors.
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