Ancient philosophy, Diogenes Laertius. About life, teachings and sayings of famous philosophers - Reader on philosophy

Ancient philosophy

Diogenes Laertius

On the life, teachings and sayings of the famous philosophers

Thales . So, Thales (according to the concordant statement of Herodotus, Durid, and Democritus) was the son of Examiah and Cleobulina from the Felid family, and the genus is Phoenician, the noblest among the descendants of Cadmus and Agenor . [He was one of the seven sages], which is confirmed by Plato; and when they received the naming of the wise men at the Athenian archon of Damascus, he received that name first (as Demetrius of Falerski says in the "List of Archons"), in Miletus he was enrolled among the citizens when he appeared there together with Neleus expelled from Phenicia. However, most claim that he was a native of Miletus, and moreover from a noble family.

Moving away from public affairs, he turned to the speculation of nature. According to one opinion, from him there was not a single work left - for the attributed to him "Shipborne astronomy" belongs, they say, to Fock of Samos. (And to Kallimahu he was known as the discoverer of the Little Dipper, as can be seen from such verses in "Yambach":

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In the heavenly chariot, he opened the stars,

On whom the Phoenicians rule the way to the sea.)

In another opinion, he wrote only two books: "On the Solstice" and "About the Equinox," considering the rest to be incomprehensible.

Some believe that he was the first to study astronomy, predicting eclipses and solstices ... Some also argue that he was the first to declare the soul immortal (among them the poet Helil). He first found the path of the sun from the solstice to the solstice; he first (according to some) announced that the size of the sun is one seven hundred and twentieth part [of the solar circular path, and the size of the moon is the same part] of the lunar path. He was the first to call the last day of the month "thirtieth". He is the first, as they say others, began to talk about nature.

Aristotle and Hippias argue that he attributed the soul even to inanimate bodies, referring to the magnet and to amber. Pamphyla says that he, having learned from the Egyptians geometry, first inscribed a rectangular triangle in a circle and for this sacrificed a bull ...

You can think that in public affairs he was the best adviser. So, when Croesus invited the Milesians to the union, Thales opposed it and thereby saved the city after the victory of Cyrus. However, in the narrative of Heraclides, he himself says that he lived in seclusion as a simple citizen. Some believe that he was married and had a son Kibisf, some of whom - that he remained unmarried, and adopted his sister's son; when asked why he does not have children, he replied: "Because I love them"; when the mother forced him to marry, he is said to have replied: "Too early!" and when she approached him, he replied: "Too late!" And Jerome of Rhodes (in the second book of "Dissenting Notes") reports that, wanting to show that getting rich is not at all difficult, he once in the foreseeing of a large olive harvest took all the buttermilk for hire and thereby made a lot of money.

At the beginning of all he believed in water, but the world considered animate and full of deities. They say he discovered the duration of the year and divided it into three hundred and sixty-five days.

He had no teachers, except for the fact that he traveled to Egypt and lived there among the priests. Jerome says that he measured the height of the pyramids in their shadow, waiting for the hour when our shadow is the same length as us ...

... Hermippe in the & quot; Biographies & quot; ascribes to Thales what others say about Socrates: if he claimed that he thanked fate for three things: first, that he was a man, and not an animal; secondly, that he is a man, not a woman; third, that he is an Hellenic, not a barbarian. It is also said that once an old woman led him to watch the stars, and he fell into a pit and started screaming for help, and the old woman said to him: "Well, Thales? you do not see what's under your feet, but you hope to know what's in the sky? "

And his sayings are known as:

The most ancient of everything is God, for he is not born.

The most beautiful is the world, for it is the creation of God.

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Most of all - space, because it embraces everything.

The quickest thing is the mind, for it goes around everything.

The strongest is inevitability, for it rules everything.

Wise is time - for it reveals everything.

He said that there is no difference between life and death. "Why do not you die?" They asked him. "That's why", Thales said. Asked what had arisen earlier, night or day, he replied: "Night is earlier for one day". Someone asked him if it was possible to hide from the gods a bad deed. "Not even a bad thought!" Said Thales.

He was asked what is difficult in the world? - & quot; Know yourself & quot ;. What is easy? - & quot; Advise another & quot ;. What is most pleasant? - & quot; Luck & quot ;. What is divine? - "That has no beginning, no end". What did he see as unheard of? - "Tyrant in old age". When is it easiest to bear affliction? - & quot; When you see that the enemies are even worse & quot ;. What kind of life is the best and fairest? - & quot; When we do not do ourselves what we condemn in others. " Who is happy? - "He who is healthy in body, receptive to the soul and submissive to education."

... Thales died, looking at gymnastic competitions, from heat, thirst and senile weakness. On the tomb it is written:

This tomb is small, but the glory over it is immense: In it lies the sensible Thales before you.

Pythagoras . ... Pythagoras, son of Myssarha - a stone-cutter, born a clerk (as Hermippus says) or a Tirrenian (as Aristoxenus says) from one of the islands that the Athenians took over, Tyrrhenian. Some say that he was the son of Marmak, the grandson of Hippas, the great grandson of Evtifron, the great-grandson of Cleonim, the Fliant of exile, and since Marmak lived on Samos, then Pythagoras is also called the sailor.

Having moved to Lesbos, he through his uncle Zohal met there with Pherecyde. And having made three silver bowls, he took them as a gift to the Egyptian priests. He had two brothers, a senior Eunom and a younger Tirrup, and there was a slave Zamolksis, whom the Geths are revered as Kronos and offer him sacrifices (according to Herodotus). He was a listener, as it was said, of Pherecides of Syros, and after his death he went to hear Himmodamant himself, Krsophilov's descendant, already an old man. Young, but thirsty for knowledge, he left his homeland for initiation into all the sacraments, both Hellenic and barbaric: he appeared in Egypt, and Polycrates brought him with Amasis, he learned the Egyptian language (as reported by Antiphont in the book "About the first in virtue "), he appeared to the Chaldeans and to the magicians. Then, in Crete, he, along with Epimenides, descended into the cave of Ida, as well as in Egypt in the sanctuaries there, and learned about the most intimate gods. And having returned to Himself and found his country under the tyranny of Polycrates, he retired to the Italian Croton; there he wrote the laws for the Italians and achieved a great honor with his disciples, numbering up to three hundred, who conducted state affairs so perfectly that it was truly an aristocracy, which means "the dominion of the best."

... He divided the life of man like this: "Twenty years - a boy, twenty - a youth, twenty - a young man, twenty - an old man. The ages are proportionate to the seasons: the boy is spring, the youth is the summer, the youth is the autumn, the elder is winter. " (He is a young man, a young man is a mature man.) He was the first, according to Timaeus, to say: "Friends have everything in common" and "Friendship is equality". Indeed, his disciples took all their goods together.

They spent five years in silence, only listening to the speeches of Pythagoras, but not seeing him until they were tested; and only then they were allowed in his dwelling and to his contemplation ...

... This he perfected the geometry after Merid discovered her firstfruits (as Anticlide writes in the second book "About Alexander"), he paid most attention to the numerical side of this science. He also discovered the marking of the monochord; He did not neglect the science of healing. And when he found that in the rectangular triangle the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the square of the legs, he brought the hecatombs to the gods (as Apollodorus the Count says ...

... They say he was the first to say that the soul makes a circle of inevitability, alternating with one or another life; the first introduced measures and weights for the Hellenes (as Aristoxenus-musicologist says); the first said that Hesper and Phosphorus are one and the same star (so says Parmenides).

... Alexander in the "Philosophy Successions" says that the Pythagorean notes also contain this. The beginning of everything is one; unit as a reason is subject to the substance of an indefinite double; From the unit and the indefinite dyad come the numbers; from numbers - points; from points to lines; of them - flat figures; of flat - three-dimensional figures; of them - sensually perceptible bodies, in which the four foundations are fire, water, earth and air; moving and becoming whole, they create the world - animate, intelligent, spherical, in the middle of which - the earth; and the earth is also spherical and populated from all sides. There are even antipodes, and our bottom is for them the best. In the world of light and darkness, cold and heat, dryness and humidity are equidistant; if the heat prevails from them, then summer will come, if the cold is winter, if the dryness is spring, if humidity is autumn, if they are equal, then the best times of the year. In the year blooming spring is health, and withering autumn is a disease; in the same way, in the daytime the morning is blossoming, and the evening is withering, and therefore the evening is more painful. The air near the earth is stagnant and unhealthy, and everything in this air is mortal; and the higher air is ever-moving, pure, healthy, and everything that is in it is immortal and therefore divine. The sun, the moon, and other lights are gods, for heat predominates in them, and it is the cause of life. The moon takes its light from the sun. Gods are related to people, for man is involved in heat, therefore, God's providence is above us. Rock is the reason for the arrangement of the whole in the order of its parts. From the sun the ray emanates through the ether, even through the cold and dense (the cold ether is called air, and the dense ether is the sea and humidity), that ray penetrates to the very depths and this all animates.

All that is involved in heat lives, therefore, plants are alive; The soul, however, is not in all. The soul is a fragment of the ether, both warm and cold, because of its involvement in the cold ether. The soul is not the same as life: it is immortal, for what it has come off from is immortal. Living beings are born from each other through the seed - birth from the earth is impossible. The seed is a stream of the brain that contains hot steam; getting from the brain to the uterus, it produces ichor, moisture and blood, from them flesh, veins, bones, and hair, and the whole body are formed, and from the pair - the soul and feelings. The first density is formed in forty days, and then, according to the laws of harmony, the ripened baby is born on the seventh or the ninth, or, at most, the tenth month. It contains in itself all the laws of life, the inseparable connection of which establishes it according to the laws of harmony, according to which each of them appears in a timely manner. Feeling in general and sight in particular is a kind of steam of special warmth; because, they say, and it is possible to see through the air and through the water, that the heat meets the resistance of the cold, and if the steam in our eyes was cold, it would dissolve in the same cold air. It is not for nothing that Pythagoras calls the eyes the gates of the sun. In the same way he teaches both about hearing and about other feelings.

The human soul is divided into three parts: the mind (nous), the mind (phren) and the passion (thymos). Mind and passion is in other living beings, but reason is only in man. The power of the soul extends from the heart and to the brain: that part of it that is in the heart is passion, and which in the brain is the mind and the mind; the streams from them are our feelings. Reasonable is immortal, and the rest is mortal. The soul feeds on blood. The laws of the soul are breaths; and she, and they are invisible, for the ether is invisible. Scrapers of the soul - veins, arteries, veins; and when it is strong and resting in itself, then the words and deeds become its bonds. Thrown to the ground, the soul wanders in the air, similar to the body. A guardian over the souls of Hermes, that is why he is called the Leader, the Gatekeeper and the Underworld, for it is he who introduces souls from bodies and from the earth and from the sea. Pure souls elevate it upward, and impure ones are plunged by erinias into indestructible fetters, and there is no access either to the pure or to each other. Souls are full of all the air, they are called demons and heroes, and from them people are sent dreams and banners of illnesses or health, and not only to people, but also to sheep and other livestock; our cleansings, propitiation, fortune telling, broadcasting, and the like are also addressed to them.

The main thing for people, said Pythagoras, is to guide the soul to good or evil. A man is happy when his soul becomes good; but in peace it does not exist and does not flow evenly. Justice is as strong as an oath, therefore Zeus is called the Oath. Virtue is harmony, health, all good and god. Friendship is the equality of frets ...

... Pythagoras died like this. He was sitting with his neighbors in the house of Milo when it happened that one of those who were not admitted to their society, envying, set fire to this house (and some assure that the Cretans themselves did so, beware of the tyranny that threatens them). Pythagoras was seized when he left - before him was a vegetable garden, all in beans, and he stopped: "Better captive than trample them," he said, "it's better to die than to be blameless." Here he was overtaken and stabbed; Here, too, most of his pupils died, a man to forty; only a few were saved ...

Heraclitus . Heraclitus, son of Blason (or, according to others, Gerakont), from Ephesus. His heyday fell on the 69th Olympiad.

He was high-minded and arrogant above all, as is evident from his work, in which he says: "Dullness does not teach the mind, otherwise it would teach Hesiod with Pythagoras and Xenophanes with Hecataeus." For there is a "single wisdom - to comprehend the Knowledge that rules all through all". Likewise, Homer, he said, was rightly driven out of the competition and cut, and Archilochus, too. He also said: "The arrogance is more necessary than the fire". and "For the law the people must fight, as for the city wall".

The Ephesians, he so scolds that they banished his comrade Hermodor: "It would be right for the Ephesians to make the adults go through all the rest, and leave the city to the inexpensive, for they drove Hermodor, better between them, with these words:" Between us, no one should be the best, and if there is one, then be in a foreign country and with strangers. " "The request of the Ephesians to give them laws he neglected, for the city was already in the grip of bad governance. After retiring to the temple of Artemis, he played with the boys in the grandmother, and the surrounding Ephesians said: "What are you marveling at, scoundrels?" Is not it better to play than to rule in your state? "

Having hated people, he retired and lived in the mountains, feeding on pastures and herbs. And having fallen ill with a dropsy, returned to the city and turned to the doctors with such a mystery: can they wrap the rain with drought? But they did not understand, and then he was buried in a bullpen, warmth of manure hoping to evaporate bad moisture. However, even without this relief, he passed away after living 60 years ...

The book, known by its name, is generally called "On Nature", is divided into three arguments: about All, about the state and about the deity. He placed this book in the sanctuary of Artemis, having taken care (as they say) to write it as dark as possible, so that only able ones could access it and that making it public would make it open to insight ...

And Theophrastus says that in writing he does not disclose otherwise, but contradicts himself in another way because of melancholy. His pride is evident from what Antisthenes says in the "Successions": he yielded to his brother the royal power. And his composition was so famous that he had followers who received the name of Heraclitus.

His opinions in general terms were as follows. Everything was made up of fire and allowed to fire. Everything is done according to destiny and is coordinated by mutual antithesis (enantiodromia). All are filled with souls and demons. He spoke about everything that the world is exposed to, for example, that the sun is as large as one sees. He also says: "The limits of the soul can not be found, by what path do not go - so deep is its Reason." Samomnenie he calls a falling sickness, and vision - a lie. And sometimes in his work he expresses himself lightly and clearly, so that even a dull one is easy to understand and be elevated by the soul. And the brevity and weight of his syllable are incomparable.

Private opinions are as follows. The beginning is fire; all is the exchange (amoibe) of fire and arises by dilution and condensation. (He, however, does not give a clear account of this.) Everything arises in opposition and flows like a river as a whole. The universe is finite, and the world is one. He arises from the fire and again proceeds to the fire alternately, the turnover behind the turn, for all eternity; this is done by Fate. In contradistinction, what leads to birth is called war and strife, and what to outrage is consent and peace. Change is the way up and down, and on it there is a world. It is the condensing fire that emanates into the moisture, is condensed into water, and the water grows stronger and turns into ground - this is the way down. And on the other hand, the earth is crumbling, water is born from it, and everything else from the water (almost everything reduces to sea evaporation) is the way up. Evaporation is born from the earth and from the sea, one bright and clean, the other dark: from light the fire is multiplied, from others - moisture. What kind of environment above this, he does not explain, but says that there are hollows (scaphai) facing us, and in them bright evaporation, gathering, form flames, which are luminaries. The brightest and hotest flame of the sun, for the other luminaries are farther from the earth, and therefore they shine less and warm, and the moon, though closer to the earth, but moves along an unclean place. The sun is moving in a place that is transparent and undisturbed and in a proportionate distance from us, because it is more and warms and shines. The eclipses of the sun and the moon are due to the fact that the hollows turn upward, and the monthly changes of the moon are due to the fact that the hollow is turning a little. Day and night, months and seasons, years, rains and winds, and the like are due to various fumes; Thus, light evaporation, igniting in the circle of the sun, produces a day, and the opposite, taking the upper hand, causes the night; so, from the light the heat increases and produces summer, but from the dark the moisture increases and creates the winter. In accordance with this, he explains the reasons and everything else. On the earth, however, he does not explain what it is; in the same way and about what those hollows are. That's what his opinions were.

... They say, to the question of why he is silent, Heraclitus replied: "So that you chat."

Dating with him wished himself Darius and wrote to him like this:

"The King of Darius, the son of Hystasp, Heraclitus, the husband of Ephesus, sends greetings. You wrote a book "On Nature", difficult for understanding and for interpretation. There are places in it, analyzing which word by word you see in them the power of your speculation about the world, about the universe and everything that is done in them, concluding in the divine movement; but even more places from which judgments have to be abstained, because even people who are experienced in literature, find it difficult to correctly interpret what you have written. Therefore, King Darius, son of Hystasp, wishes to join in your conversations and Hellenic education. Hasten to come, in order to contemplate me in my royal palace. Hellenes, I know, are usually inattentive to their wise men and neglect their beautiful instructions for the benefit of teaching and knowledge. And with me you are waited with all sorts of primacy, wonderful and useful everyday conversations and a life consistent with your instructions. "

"Heraclitus of Ephesus to the king of Darius, the son of Hystaspes, sends greetings. No matter how many people are on the earth, truth and justice are alienated, and they contend in their unreasonable irrationality towards greed and vanity. I've thrown all the bad things out of my head, I'm avoiding the satiety of everything due to the envy that is adjacent to it and disgusted with arrogance. Therefore, I will not come to the Persian land, but I will be satisfied with the few that I like. " That's what he was before the king himself.

Demetrius in & quot; Co-Owners & quot; says that he despised even the Athenians, although he enjoyed great fame, and preferred to live in his homeland, although the Ephesians neglected him ...

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