Development of memory in ontogeny
In children, the development of memory begins with the appearance of the first conditioned reflexes. The earliest conditioned reflex emerging in the infant in the first weeks of life is the child's nutritional reactions. This is the appearance of the distorting movements of the head, sucking movements, opening the mouth when picking up the "position under the breast". Approximately from the second month of life, the formation of conditioned reflex connections with the participation of all analyzers is accessible. During this period, the child begins to recognize the surrounding people and objects. By 5 months, the latent (latent) period of recognition - the time interval between two perceptions at which recognition is possible - is several days, in the second year it reaches several weeks, at the 3rd year of life it increases to several months, to 4 years - up to one year, and by 7 years is about three years. After the appearance of the recognition reaction, the first memories of missing persons and objects appear. By the end of the first year of life, they are noted in children in the most distinct form: when a familiar object is called, the child begins to look for it with his eyes, turning his head to the side where this object usually is. In the 2-3 rd year of life, in connection with the transition to an active, independent speech, memories become more definite and complete, since speech serves as a means for consolidating connections. There is a gradual increase in the latent period of reproduction: in the second year of life this is several days, on the third - several weeks, on the 4th - for several months. The leading cause of such a short latent period of recognition and reproduction in children in the first years of life is the lack of sufficiently strong systems of connections in early childhood, in which new connections (systems of experience) could be included, as well as the small differentiation of temporary connections. This is due to the insufficiency and uncertainty of the first childhood memories, as well as the rapid forgetting of the impressions of early childhood. Most often, some inconsistent memories of childhood refer only to the 4-5th year of life, and only in some cases, with bright emotional influences, they can occur at an earlier age. Coherent and consistent memories of childhood usually arise from 5-7 years, and sometimes from 9-10 years.
In early childhood and in younger preschool age, memory is characterized by unintentional and involuntary behavior. At this age, the child is not yet faced with the task of remembering something for reproduction in the future. A small child remembers exactly what is relevant for him at the moment, and is associated with his immediate life interests and needs, or that which has a strong emotional impact. The appearance of the first elements of arbitrary memorization can be seen only in the middle of preschool age, around 4-5 years of life. Their occurrence is associated with the rapid development of the second signal system and an increase in its role in regulating the child's behavior. Intentional memorization and reproduction arise first in those cases when these processes are directly related to the leading activity of a child of this age - with the game. The game activity is emotionally saturated, which will create a strong emotional reinforcement of memory, thereby facilitating the processes of deliberate memorization.
A characteristic feature of memory in childhood is its visually-figurative character. The child is easier to memorize objects and pictures, and when presenting a verbal material, figurative and emotionally acting stories and descriptions are easier to remember. But abstract concepts and reasoning preschool children can not practically remember. Along with visual-shaped memory, children develop word-logical memory quickly, but for its development constant reinforcement on the part of objective stimuli is required.
At preschool age, it can be seen that all types of child memory are poorly developed, while the productivity of voluntary and involuntary memory is approximately the same, but socially conditioned types of memory - arbitrary, mediated and logical - are intensively developed under the influence of upbringing and education. By the time of entering the school, the memory processes have reached a sufficient level of development for successful mastering of the school curriculum. In the process of development from younger school age to adolescence, the productivity of natural memory types (involuntary, direct and mechanical) grows faster than the productivity of social memory types that go to the first positions in the senior school age and determine the mastery of the future profession and the level of social achievements.
Analytical and Synthetic Activities
As you grow up instead of the total perception of external influences associated with the irradiation of excitement, the child has the ability to perceive individual aspects of phenomena and objects with their subsequent evaluation. On the basis of these abilities, the thinking activity of children goes from private to general. The physiological mechanism of this process is conditioned by the development of the analytic-synthetic activity of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres.
Analysis (analytic activity) is the ability of an organism to divide, dismember the stimuli of the external world (images) that act on the body, on the simplest elements, properties and attributes./p> Synthesis (synthetic activity) is a process that is the opposite of analysis, which consists in isolating among the simplest elements, properties and attributes of the most significant and important and integrating them into complex systems and complexes.
With the help of sensory systems, the organism distinguishes, i.e. analyzes all the existing internal and external stimuli and, based on this analysis, forms (synthesizes) the idea of them. This is the unity of the analytic-synthetic activity of the brain.
GNI can be considered as an analytical and synthetic activity of the cerebral cortex and the nearest subcortical formations, which makes it possible to separate certain elements from the environment, to unite them into complexes and systems corresponding to the biological significance of the phenomena of the surrounding world. Throughout childhood and adolescence, the formation of analytic-synthetic activity is an important basis for intellectual development and learning and is determined, on the one hand, by genetically inherent preconditions (the hereditary component of intellectual capabilities), on the other hand, by the forming influence of the environment.
For the optimal formation of analytical and synthetic activity, which is the basis of thinking, in the process of ontogenetic development, a constant influx of information is needed that is especially important at the current stage of development (see Sensitive periods).
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