Modern pedagogy quite convincingly defends the triune basis of human development. It is established that the process and results of human development are determined by the combined effect of three general factors - heredity, environment and upbringing. The following scheme, borrowed from I. Shvantsara, illustrates the relationship of the main development factors ( 39).
The base is formed by congenital and inherited predispositions, denoted by the generalized term "heredity." Congenital and inherited predispositions develop under the influence of the main external influences - environment and upbringing. The interaction of these factors can be either optimal (an equilateral triangle), or when revaluing one or another external summand (vertex C1 or C2) is inharmonious. It is also possible that the congenital and inherited base is not sufficiently developed both by the environment and by upbringing (triangle A1B1C3). This scheme should simultaneously demonstrate that no single factor acts independently, that the outcome of development depends on their consistency.
Fig. 39. The relationship of development factors
Natural (biological) in a person is what connects him with his ancestors, and through them - with the whole living world. Reflection of the biological - heredity. Under heredity means the transfer from parents to children of certain qualities and characteristics. Carriers of heredity are genes. Modern science has proved that the properties of the organism are encrypted in a kind of gene code that stores and transmits all information about the properties of the organism. Genetics has deciphered the hereditary program of human development, but it is not yet possible to use these data to manage the development and formation of a person.
As noted, the hereditary programs of a person's development include deterministic and , defining as something common that makes a person a person, and so special that makes people so unlike each other. The deterministic part of the program provides, first of all, the continuation of the human race, as well as the specific dispositions of man as a representative of the human race, including the makings of speech, upright walking, labor activity, and thinking. From the parents to the children are transferred external signs: features of a constitution, color of hair, eyes and skin. The combination in the body of various proteins is hard-genetically programmed, blood groups, Rh factor are determined. Inherited human physical characteristics predetermine the visible and invisible differences of people.
The hereditary properties also include the features of the nervous system, which determine the nature and characteristics of the course of mental processes. Deficiencies, shortcomings of the nervous activity of parents, including pathological, causing mental disorders, diseases (eg, schizophrenia) can also be transmitted to the offspring. Hereditary nature have blood diseases (hemophilia), diabetes mellitus, some endocrine disorders - dwarfism, for example. Negative effects on offspring are caused by alcoholism and drug addiction of parents.
Variant part of the program provides the development of systems that help the human body adapt to changing conditions of its existence. The vast unfilled areas of the hereditary program are presented for the subsequent training. Each person complements this part of the program independently. In this way, nature provides an exceptional opportunity for man to realize his human potency through self-development and self-improvement. Thus, the need for education is inherent in man by nature. Hardly programmed hereditary traits are enough for the animal to survive, but not to humans.
The pedagogical aspect of studies of the laws of human development covers the study of such major problems as the inheritance of intellectual, special, social, moral (spiritual) qualities.
Extremely important is the question of inheriting intellectual qualities. What do children inherit - ready-made abilities for a particular type of activity or only predispositions, makings? Considering abilities as individual psychological peculiarities of personality, as conditions for successful performance of certain types of activities, teachers distinguish them from the makings of potential opportunities for the development of abilities. The analysis of the facts accumulated in experimental studies makes it possible to answer the question unambiguously - not inherits abilities, but only makings.
Human inheritance is realized or not. It all depends on whether the person will have the opportunity to transfer the hereditary potency into specific abilities that ensure success in a particular kind of activity. Whether an individual will be able to develop his talent depends on the circumstances: the conditions of life, the environment, the needs of society, and finally, the demand for the product of a particular human activity.
Particularly controversial is the question of the inheritance of abilities to intellectual (cognitive, educational) activities. Humanist pedagogues proceed from the premise that all normal people receive from nature a high potential for the development of their mental and cognitive powers and are capable of practically unlimited spiritual development. The existing differences in types of higher nervous activity change only the course of thought processes, but do not predetermine the quality and level of intellectual activity itself. Prominent geneticist academician NP Dubinin believes that for the normal brain there is no genetic conditioning of the variations of the intellect and that the widespread opinion that the level of intelligence is passed from parents to children does not correspond to the results of scientific research.
At the same time, teachers all over the world recognize that there can be an inheritance that is unfavorable for the development of intellectual abilities. Negative predispositions are created, for example, by lax cells of the cerebral cortex in children of alcoholics, broken genetic structures in drug addicts, and certain hereditary mental diseases.
Many educators, relying on the latest research, believe that the existence of the intellectual inequality of people is proven and the root cause of it is recognized as biological heredity. Pre-requisites for cognitive activity, which predetermine educational and educational opportunities, are inherited by people in different ways. From this comes the conclusion: human nature can not be improved, intellectual abilities remain unchanged and constant. Human improvement through genetics is not achieved. Only upbringing can gradually improve it.
Understanding the inheritance process of intellectual gifts predetermines practical ways of educating and educating people. Modern pedagogy does not focus on identifying differences and adapting to them for upbringing, but on creating equal conditions for the development of each person's makings. The majority of foreign pedagogical systems proceed from the fact that education must follow development, it only helps the maturation of the inherent in nature from man and therefore should only be adapted to the makings and abilities of man.
In the definition of special there are no special disagreements between representatives of different pedagogical systems. It is established that children with special inclinations achieve significantly better results and advance in their chosen field of activity at a rapid pace. With a strong expression of such makings manifest at an early age, if the person is provided with the necessary conditions. Special inclinations are musical, artistic, mathematical, linguistic, sports, etc.
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