Jefferson on international democracy
The beginning of the pawning of the principles of international democracy is also largely related to the name and activities of T. Jefferson. Democratism, he believed, has deep objective roots. Speaking about the moral obligations that people had in relation to each other in a natural state and led to the formation of societies, Jefferson noted that the same duties bind the societies together. We are firmly convinced and act with such conviction, he said in his second inaugural speech in 1805, that our relations with countries, as well as with people, will be inseparable from our moral obligations, because in the long term, political interest can never be is remote from the moral right. He called for tolerance and understanding in relations between peoples, each of which has its own system of moral values. "People living in different countries, under different circumstances, different habits and regimes, may have different values," he wrote, "therefore the same act; which can be useful and therefore virtuous in one country, can prove harmful and vicious in other conditions. " [12, vol. 9, p. 7].
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Jefferson called for respect for the forms of government elected by other nations, expecting that their own form will also be respected by them. Nobody has any right to interfere in the choice of other people by their government or domestic policy. The most basic thing in this choice is the will of the nation [12, vol. 1, p. 201].
Justice, Jefferson believed, is the norm of relationships not only between individuals, but also between nations. Each nation has a natural right to all jurisdiction that can be legally exercised in the territory it occupies. Because peace and prosperity, rather than conquest and domination, were proclaimed US goals, they must avoid closeness with other nations that can keep them from adherence to peace. Our devotion to no nation on earth should supplant our devotion to freedom & quot; [12, vol. 9, p. 385], "he urged.
Historians and politicians ascribe to Churchill the thesis that Britain has no permanent friends, but only permanent interests. In reality, T. Jefferson formulated this idea, applied to the United States, and was first put forward by the first US President D. Washington, in whose administration Jefferson served as Secretary of State. The US has only permanent interests, but there are not and should not be permanent friends, and they should not enter into binding alliances with other countries, Washington said in a farewell address to the Americans on September 19, 1796. These words, already applied to Great Britain, were later repeated by British Prime Ministers Lord Palmerston and Churchill.
In the spirit of "Ode to the world" Erasmus Desiderius Jefferson sang the world and condemned the war. Countries whose rulers use the resources of their country to wage wars and hostile policies towards other countries, he believed, doom their people to debt and devastation, while free societies are organized for the happiness and prosperity of their peoples, best ensuring a state of peace . "How much better for neighbors to help, rather than inflict injuries on each other? & quot; - he asked and answered: if the countries stop waging wars with each other, if they live in friendship with all mankind, then they can use all their time to provide their people with goods. Their men will not be maimed in the war, and women and children will sleep in their homes without fear of being killed or stolen by enemies. The population will increase, not decrease, and they will live in abundance and at rest.
& quot; The more I hate war and see it as the biggest scourge for humanity and the more passionate I want to stay away from quarrels in Europe, the more I want to go with my brethren in these desires, and not be separated from them " [12, vol. 14, p. 308], he wrote in 1797.
Jefferson called the world the supreme interests of the United States and a condition for their release from debts. The state of the world, in his opinion, is what most improves morals, prosperity and happiness of mankind. Remaining always a friend of the world and believing in it as a way to promote the happiness and prosperity of peoples, I wish more than ever that it would not be violated, President Jefferson wrote in 1807. Energy and enterprise demonstrated for the sake of peace, will be no less outstanding than those that are demonstrated in the war. The happiness of mankind is best promoted by the policy of peace, he said, only the steady prosperity of the country rests on the world.
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Therefore, he made great efforts to keep the US neutral in solving the problems that afflict Europe. Returning to this issue later, Jefferson admitted that if he was ever satisfied with the possession of power and the confidence of the people, then only when he had the opportunity to use them to prevent war.
As Secretary of State for the United States, Jefferson was guided by the postulate that in the power of neighboring countries to promote their mutual happiness and prosperity, sincerely using their services to ensure peace and mutual benefits. Relations with all countries must be determined by the consciousness of that, he believed that peace, prosperity, free morality are closely related. "Peace, trade and honest friendship with all countries linking unions to none, I consider [one of] the essential principles of our government," Jefferson proclaimed in his speech at the inauguration of the US president in March 1801.
President Jefferson spoke of the need to cultivate peace and friendship with all countries, because this course will also contribute to the welfare of the United States. There is an inextricable link between peace, prosperity, freedom and morality. Of course, Jefferson added that these principles should be based on the common interests of all parties. And the common interests of all countries are best matched by free trade, which the US must carry out without entering into political relations with any one. The main goal of such a policy is not to involve the US in conflicts in Europe by signing any agreements. Trade with all countries, political alliances with anyone - that was his motto.The strengthening of the spirit of fairness of agreements with all countries was proclaimed the goal of US foreign policy in the second message of President T Jefferson "On the situation in the country". These positions he adhered to the end of his life. I wish that all countries can revive and preserve their independence so that large and powerful states do not go beyond the force necessary for their own security, that a beneficial balance is always maintained between nations and that peace, trade and friendship are cultivated by all of them, he in 1815.
Hence the emphasis on the right of each country to self-determination, self-government and refusal to interfere in each other's affairs. "The right of nations to self-government is my polar star, my addictions are governed by this ...", the theorist declared. The assumption of the possibility of dictating to an independent country the form of its rule Jefferson called arrogant, brutal and evoking indignation. The Thinker was aware that over time the United States could become a great power capable of dictating its will to other countries and peoples. "But I hope," he wrote, "that our wisdom will grow with our strength and teach us that the less we use our power, the greater we will become" [12, vol. 11, p. 111].
At the same time, President Jefferson clearly saw the fundamental differences in the geopolitical interests of the US and European countries. He considered it unwise not to take advantage of the exceptionally blessed conditions in which nature placed the United States. He also owns the basic ideas of the US foreign policy doctrine during the nineteenth century: non-interference in the past, beyond the borders of the New World, and inadmissibility of the intervention of European countries in the grandfather of the Western Hemisphere. As president, Jefferson wrote to the then US ambassador in France, J. Monroe, in 1806 that he considered the Gulf Stream entirely as US waters, in which military actions and cruising by other countries should be condemned and banned. "We will never allow another privateer to swim within this region, and we will forbid entry to our harbors to cruisers of other states." This is the basis for our peace of mind and trade & quot; [12, vol. 13, p. 119].
At that time, Jefferson understood the limitations of the United States and the need to stay as far as possible from international conflicts, accumulating strength to defend its own line in world politics. When the force will allow us to establish the right of our hemisphere, according to which the meridian of the central Atlantic should become the line of demarcation between war and peace,
On the other side of which no hostile act should be allowed, and the lion and the lamb lay down in peace together " [12, vol. 14, p. 22]. This idea he persistently inspired his correspondents from European countries.
European nations constitute a separate part of the globe; they have a system of their own interests, in which we should never be involved, Jefferson wrote in 1813 to the famous German scientist V. Humboldt. America has its own hemisphere. It should have its own separate system, which is of particular interest to the United States, "which should not be subordinated to that of Europe." ... No spark of war, kindled in other parts of the globe, should be conveyed through the wide oceans that separate us from them " [12, vol. 15, p. 477].
He urged his like-minded and president in the post of D. Monroe not to let the United States get involved in the affairs of Europe and not allow Europe to interfere in the affairs of the New World. Our first and fundamental principle is never to let ourselves be dragged into the quarrels of Europe. Our second motto is to never allow Europe to interfere in affairs on this side of the Atlantic Ocean. America, the North and the South have a number of interests that are different from those of Europe. Therefore, it must have its own system, separate from that of Europe. While the latter is making efforts to become a permanent residence place for despotism, our efforts should make our hemisphere a hemisphere of freedom ... [Our] goal [in this hemisphere] is to introduce and establish an American system to keep all foreign powers away from our land and to never let those of Europe interfere in the affairs of our nations " [12, vol. 15, p. 478-479].
At the same time Jefferson stressed that the US does not aim at acquiring any possessions of Europe in the New World and in no way stand in the way of a friendly agreement between them and their metropolis; but they will act, using all their means, against the violent interference of any other power in the problems of the New World. The ex-president advised the president to do what is right, namely: to allow the people of Europe to commit their madness and crimes in conflicts among themselves, and most to follow in good faith along the path of peace and prosperity. These ideas are reflected in a document known as the "Doctrine of Monroe".
Jefferson was a political thinker and practitioner, unrelated to dogmas and vividly reacting to the demands of life, even at the cost of revising, and sometimes repeatedly, his own assessments and actions. In the introductory article to the collected works
Jefferson in 1904. Paul L. Ford enumerated many such cases. So, Jefferson called state governments "sovereigns", but criticized them for exceeding their constitutional powers. He spoke in favor of an absolutely independent jury and the judiciary, and at the same time criticized them as undemocratic institutions. He demanded that civil servants be selected only on the basis of their merits and, at the same time, fill in the commissions with their supporters. Criticized the national bank for its illegal influence on the national government, but supported him during his presidency, etc.
However, there is nothing surprising and defamatory Jefferson in the eyes of contemporaries and descendants. The conditions of real life changed, and the thinker-practitioner immediately took them into account in his work. It would be fine if this example was followed by statesmen of all countries of the world.
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