Pronoun - Modern Russian language


The problem of pronouns is one of the most complex problems of grammar. M erstymeni by tradition are defined as part of speech, which indicates objects, signs and quantities, but does not call them (who, you, this, some, several). This understanding is not at present generally accepted. In order to include pronouns in the system of parts of speech, it is necessary to consider in more detail the features of the value and formal indices of the pronoun words.

When studying the special features of pronoun words, it is necessary to take into account that for pronouns three main semantic functions are characteristic:

1) deictic function (& lt; gr. Мгхгэ - indication) - indication of the conditions of the speech act, correlation of what is said, with the terms of the speech act and its participants (i 'speaking', you 'listening', your 'belonging to you, ie listening', this 'located near place of speech act ', that ' far away ', etc.);

2) anaphoric function (& lt; gr. - referencing) - correlation of the elements of the given utterance with other parts of the text, reference to the previously said (such 'similar or equal to volume , about someone already mentioned, ' other ' not the one about which it was said ', etc.);

3) quantifier function - an indication of the type of object attribution of the name, i.e. correlating the name with different classes of objects and their attributes: with a class of objects or characteristics about which the speaker would like to receive information from the listener {who, what, how much ); with a class of unknown to the speaker or listener (and therefore undetermined) objects or attributes of the object ( someone, anything, some, somehow), with a class of universal, {all, any, everyone), with a class of objects and attributes that do not include the given object or attribute {no one, no one , any) etc .

According to the nature of the functions performed, the pronounced words are divided into eight functional-semantic categories.

Personal pronouns: I, we (1st person) - point to the speaker; you, you (2nd person) - point to the listener; he, she, it, they (3rd person) - point to the one/about who is being spoken about. Pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons have a deictic function of sending to participants in the act of speech. The pronouns of the third person are sometimes called personal-indicative, they combine the personal-deictic function with the situational-indicative (Here it goes) and even the anaphoric {This is Petrov. He leaves).

The return pronoun itself performs a deictic function and indicates the producer's relation to himself: Since ancient times, the sweet union of poets binds (P.); Everywhere Onegin the soul involuntarily expresses itself (П.).

Possessive pronouns: mine, yours , our, yours , yours, its, its, their (the last three are indeclinable: i> here his house, see his house, rejoice at his house) are associated with deixis and anaphora - indicate the belonging of something to the speaker/listener or the one about whom it is said.

The demonstrative pronouns: this, that, such, such, is so much, is obsolete. such, such, this, this, that - have the general meaning of indication of objects, their quality or quantity. Depending on the situation of speech, they perform a deictic function {This tree is closer than that) or anaphoric {The children were rattling , and the eupe puzzled the nurse).

Interrogative-relative pronouns:

1) interrogative questions about the subject, its characteristics, affiliation or quantity: who, what, what, what (out-of-date which), whose , which , how much (quantifier function);

2) relative - the above pronouns in the function of union words that connect the main part of the compound sentence with the subordinate clause: Who can not take with affection, he will not take and rigor (Ch.); About you , which awaits the fatherland from the bowels of your own! (Lom.) - anaphoric function.

Definitive pronouns: all, every, every, most, every, other, different, every, every - indicate a generalized feature of the object (quantifier function).

Negative pronouns: no one, nothing, no one, no one, and also no one, nothing, not having the nominative case (quantifier function).

Indefinite pronouns: somebody, something, some, some, several, and pronouns formed from question-relative pronouns with the help of word-building elements something -or , -never ( someone, somebody, some, some, some , etc.) - indicate indeterminate objects, signs or quantities. The pronouns of this group also perform a quantifier function.

Pronouns are a closed, unproductive lexical group; new pronoun words in Russian do not appear. However, pronouns can be found in some adjectives, nouns, numerals: this question ('this'); known miscalculation ('some'); certain success ('some'); Laughter - serious matter ('something'); There used to be one person ('some').

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