Selection of market winners using the GrahamRi method
B. Graham and J. Ree in 1970 with Gt. offered investors an original approach to the selection of companies for investing on the basis of the multiplier "priceearnings", a number of financial balance indicators and the total yield of the bonds of the highest rating (AAA). Note that the selection of investmentattractive companies does not include issuers with high financial leverage and a high multiplier valuepriceearnings ratio. Companies with a high profit growth rate are welcome. The approach was implemented not only by the investment fund of the authors (Rea  Graham Fund), but also by a number of other US investment companies (LMHFund, Sequoia Fund, Pacific Partners Fund).
The model involves getting answers like "yes" and & quot; no & quot; to 10 questions for identifying shares that have the highest premiumrisk ratio. " The algorithm for selecting shares is structured as follows:
1. A sample of companies is being constructed, according to which the following financial indicators are calculated (Table 26.1).
Table 26.1
Financials for the GrahamRi model
Financial Performance 
Method of calculation 
Debt/equity ratio & quot; (D/E) 
Calculated by the balance estimates. As a debt, all debt obligations appear 
Current liquidity 
Calculated on financial statements: Current assets/Current liabilities 
Purified value of current (shortterm) assets 
Calculated on the company's financial statements: Current assets  Total debt 
Purified value of current assets per share 
(Current Assets  Total Debt)/Number of Ordinary Shares in Circulation 
Book value of shares 
Equity capital by balance sheet/Number of ordinary shares in circulation or (Balance Currency  Total Debt)/Number of Ordinary Shares in Circulation 
EPS 
Net Income/Number of Ordinary Shares in Circulation 
Annual EPS growth rate 

Price/earnings multiplier (P/E) 
Market capitalization/Net profit 
Average multiplier P/E for the year for the stock 
Average annual market capitalization/Net profit for the year 
2. Discarded shares of the sample, for which the first question received a negative answer, i.e. remain the companyissuers with a small financial lever.
3. The remaining companies discard those for whom the answer is yes & quot; on one of the questions under the numbers 6, 8, 10 (that is, on the basis of the analysis of the dividend yield and the ratio of the market price and the balance valuation of the stock).
Example
Assume that the yield of highly reliable bonds is 12%. The return value of the yield will be 1/0,12 = 8,333. Half of the inverse value is 4.1666. The multiplier P/E for companies included in the sample should be less than 4.1666. If the yield of highly reliable bonds is 7%, the multiplier PIE for companies included in the sample should be less than 7.14. If the multiplier is larger, then a negative answer is given to question 6 (no).
4. The remaining companies are potential "market winners".
GrahamRee questions for forming an investmentattractive portfolio of shares (answer is required "yes"/"no")
1. Ratio & quot; total debt/equity & quot; is less than one?
2. Is the current liquidity ratio greater than two?
3. The total debt is less than the doubled purged value of current (shortterm) assets?
4. The growth in earnings per share (EPS) over the past 10 years has averaged at least 7% per year?
5. From the last 10 years of observations, the annual EPS growth rate did not fall below minus 5% for at least two years?
6. Current multiplier "priceearnings & quot; less than half of the inverse return value of bonds rated AAA?
7. The current multiplier P/E is less than 40% of the largest average multiplier over the past five years?
8. The dividend yield on a share is equal to not less than 2/3 of the yield on highly reliable bonds?
9. Is the market price of the share less than 2/3 of the book value of the share?
10. Is the market price of the share below 2/3 of the cleaned value of current assets per share?
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