Social institutions and social rolesSocial Institute is a social education that is important in the structure of society and represents a regular and long-term social practice, sanctioned and supported by special norms. Well-known social institutions such as the state, school, political party, family, etc.
It is accepted to distinguish five basic complexes of social institutions:
1) economic institutions, employees for the production and distribution of goods and services;
2) political institutions, regulating the exercise of power and access to it;
3) stratification institutes (dividing society into strata, or strata) involved in the distribution of individuals according to a certain status scale (income, wealth, prestige, age , ethnicity, etc.);
4) related institutions, related to the marriage, family and socialization of youth, the gradual formation of a growing member of a society familiar with the norms of social life and willing to comply with them;/p>
5) cultural institutions, related to scientific, artistic and religious activities.
The notion of a social institution means not only a certain element of the social structure, but also established and regularly repeated patterns of behavior. In this regard, this concept is close in its content to the notion of social role.
Social role - is a mode of behavior that is imposed by society to a person who is in a certain social position. A social role is the behavior of people, determined not by their individual characteristics, but by the existing expectations of the people around them. Examples of social roles can be the role of the father (the behavior expected by others around the person in the position of the father), the role of the teenager, the role of the passenger of urban transport, the role of the pop star, etc. Like the role, the social institution means established patterns of behavior, but the institution is viewed as a unit of higher order, more general and involving many roles. For example, the school as a social institution includes the roles of the student and the teacher, the roles of parents and the roles of those who run schools and at various levels control their activities. The school institute as a whole covers all these roles in all schools forming the school system of the given society.
Social institutions change over time, they arise and disappear. Institutions are not some once and for all fixed and unchanging realities. Changes in social activities can lead both to the modification of existing institutions, and to the emergence of entirely new institutions.
Institutionalization - the process of forming and strengthening a social institution, i.e. a certain social practice, gradually overgrowing its regulatory standards and becoming sufficiently regular and long-term. Further, from the diverse social institutions, the state, civil society, political parties, some closed communities (army, church, organized mass, science), the family will be examined in more detail. These social institutions are extremely important for the life of society. But, of course, they do not exhaust all the many institutions in it.
Each social institution has its own history: at a certain time it arises, strengthens, but then withers and falls into decay or acquires a completely new form. For example, political parties in the modern sense of the word began to emerge only in the conditions of the formation of capitalism. Party associations are unstable, from them the breakaway groups periodically drop out, many parties that have not stood the test of time disappear. In the XX century. there were political parties of a very special type, the so-called totalitarian parties, but by the end of the century they were almost gone. The questions of the historical evolution of the social institutions considered below will not, however, be considered specifically.
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