Compositional Presentation Models
The basic structure of the presentation is formed by four major information blocks:
2) the main part;
3) the conclusion;
4) answers to questions.
When distributing information that needs to be delivered to the listener during the presentation accompanied by the presentation, it should be borne in mind that the main focus of the audience's attention is usually focused on the introductory and final part of the speech. Therefore, the most important information, on which the speaker wants to sharpen the attention of the audience, should be placed in the presentation at both the opening and closing slides. Along with these recommendations, it should also be taken into account that the blocks corresponding to entry and conclusion should not be too large - each of these blocks can occupy 10 to 30% of the total presentation time.
When creating a computer presentation accompanying the presentation, one should strive to ensure that the presentation forms of the information on the slides and their sequence support and supplement the oral presentation of the speaker. Then the listener can fill in the missing information in case it was missed, from what the lecturer says, or, on the contrary, find what he listened to on the slides being shown.
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When creating a presentation that is presented to the audience in the absence of a speaker, it is necessary to try to place as much as possible on the slides all the information necessary for understanding its meaning and carefully construct the slide change trajectory. Ideally - any presentation should initially assume the possibility of regrouping and rearranging its contents depending on the situation, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the audience and the transformation of current goals and objectives. Therefore, the flexibility in quantization and design of content is one of the foundations for a successful presentation.
A great advantage of presenting information in the form of a presentation is the possibility of supplementing it with new materials. Modern software and hardware tools allow you to easily change the content and store large amounts of information.
Experience in using presentations in teaching practice. Educational presentations are recommended to be actively used in lessons when learning new material, fixing a new topic, testing knowledge.
The logical sequence for creating a training presentation is as follows:
1) structuring the educational material;
2) drafting a presentation script;
3) development of the design of a multimedia manual;
4) preparation of media fragments (audio, video, animation, text);
5) check on the health of all elements of the presentation.
As a guideline for creating multimedia presentations for educational purposes, you can also use the following recommendations of D. V. Gudov:
1) slides of the presentation should contain only the main points of the lecture (basic definitions, diagrams, animation and video fragments reflecting the essence of the phenomena being studied), the texts should be brief;
2) the total number of slides should not exceed 20-25. It is necessary to find the right balance between the material being delivered and the accompanying multimedia elements, so as not to reduce the effectiveness of the material being taught. One of the important moments is the preservation of a unified style, a unified structure and the form of presentation of the teaching material;
3) do not overload the slides with various special effects, otherwise the attention of the trainees will be focused on them, rather than on the information content of the slide;
4) the level of perception of the material is strongly influenced by the color scale of the slide, so you need to take care of the proper coloring of the presentation. To make the slide readable, you need to clearly calculate the time to display a slide so that the presentation is a supplement to the lesson, and not vice versa. This ensures proper perception of information by listeners;
5) when creating a multimedia manual, it is supposed to be limited to using two or three fonts. To preserve consistency, it's better to use templates for presentations.
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There are known results of a survey of students about what they like and do not like in presentations that were prepared and conducted by teachers.
Students do not like it if in the presentations of teachers:
• too much text on one slide;
• Substandard small pictures;
• animated transitions between slides and text animations;
• Patterns with too many colors.
Students liked it;
• Graphs and charts, as they allow you to better understand the content;
• Bulleted lists - they help organize ideas;
• A clear presentation structure - helps structuring the lecture itself;
• Oral explanations of pictures and graphs (this is better than a simple outline).
Preparing a public presentation with a presentation
After completing all the work on the creation, editing and formatting of the presentation slides, it is necessary to prepare it for full effective integration into the process of speaking to the public.
The first stage of such preparation is the rehearsal of the presentation with the prepared presentation in a situation as close as possible to the real communicative situation of presenting the presentation. During the rehearsal, the free possession of the material is worked out, the most convenient method of its delivery is selected (rhythm and tempo of speech, intonation selection, pausing and other parameters of speaking), the listener's (listeners) reaction to key information blocks of the presentation is tested.
To train free material ownership, it is very useful to print presentation slides in the Slide Notes mode. In the Notes field, in the process of creating a presentation, you can enter key terms and concepts, as well as the main semantic elements (theses) of the segment of the presentation presented on the slide. During the presentation and presentation demonstration, the speaker can periodically refer to the printed material.
It is useful to make a rehearsal audio recording for working out the form of the performance. Audio recording of the presentation during the presentation can be included directly in the program PowerPoint, in the Slideshow menu, select the Sound recording command. Rehearsal of the performance can also be recorded on video and analyze the resulting result in terms of its effectiveness and optimality.
At the next stage of preparation, the presentation should be shown on the presentation equipment that is supposed to be used in a real presentation. This will allow to correct possible errors in the management of new equipment in advance, get the necessary technical assistance from local specialists. Approbation of the presentation in the actual conditions in which the performance will take place is also important for making corrections in the font and color design of the slides.
During the rehearsal, the presentation author can determine and specify its overall timing (i.e., the time allotted for each presentation slide), which is automatically started in PowerPoint section of the Slideshow menu - the Time setup command, or specify the timing of all animations placed on the slides.
In addition to working with the actual computer presentation, the speaker should also think over the full range of non-verbal elements that may be key to maximally effective impact on the audience accompanied by the presentation presentation. The non-verbal components include appearance, gesture, facial expressions, ways of moving around the room and other characteristics of the image and behavior of the speaker.
The role of computer presentations in modern information exchange is extremely high. Without a multimedia computer presentation, where text messages can be combined with graphic, sound, video and animation materials, today there is not a single public performance, regardless of the genre of such a speech and the qualitative and quantitative composition of the audience of its listeners and spectators. Currently, the main tool for creating computer presentations is the application Microsoft PowerPoint . In the process of generating a computer presentation file, the program PowerPoint allows you to create a new presentation, open previously created, edit and format, save the prepared presentation to a file and print and also to archive the presentation and export it to other programs of the integrated package MS Office . In the program PowerPoint the user is offered a wide range of tools and tools for inclusion in the presentation and editing in it different x kinds of graphics and multimedia elements. The slideshow management tools allow you to set the order of presentation slides and the form of switching between them, the sequence and form of presentation of the structural elements of an individual slide, their animation effects, the way and presentation of the multimedia components of the slide, and multimedia support for the entire presentation as a whole. To help the user create a presentation in PowerPoint , a simplified presentation design mode is provided, which is provided by a special module of the program - Auto Content Wizard. After completing the presentation, you need to think over its presentation to the audience, for which it is recommended to conduct several stages of rehearsing the performance with this presentation.
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