Aims and objectives of education
One of the fundamental problems of pedagogy is the development and definition of the goals of education. The goal is the object of aspiration, what is needed, it is desirable to implement the & quot ;. In the scientific context, the goal is seen as a conscious representation of the final result of a particular activity.
Education is the more effective, the more precise, its goal is more clearly defined. A thorough knowledge of the goals of education gives the teacher a clear idea of what kind of person he should develop, and, of course, this gives his work the necessary sense and direction. A conscious goal is achieved more quickly - such is the immutable stage of psychology. A. S. Makarenko stressed that the educator should be able to design the personality of the pupil. But in order to design an individual, you need to imagine in detail what it should be and what qualities it needs to develop.
No less important is the fact that the goal, as a law, determines the way and nature of human actions. Everything is subordinate to goals: the content, organization, forms and methods of education. Questions - what should the school and educators strive for in their practical activities, what results can be achieved - can be called key.
Defining the goal of education is a complex process in which society, the state, the family, the school, the personality participate.
Each era, each state set its tasks before educational institutions. The goal was determined based on the prevailing ideological views, and was formulated as a social order. The state and society have always considered the goal of pedagogical activity as a reasoned concern for their future. Therefore, the formulation of the goal most often included provisions that, in the opinion of the ruling authorities, would ensure the preservation of the existing system and the system of social relations. At the same time, the main arguments put forward concern for the future of the younger generation.
The goal of education should be understood as the "final result, ideally represented by the expectations of the society, the person himself, the bearer of universal, highly spiritual values."
In pedagogy, there has always been a mixture of ideal and realistic goals. Often, as the only acceptable ideal goals were put forward.
In society, through the various forms of social consciousness, the ideal of the future man is created. In the strict philosophical sense, ideal is the "highest sample of the moral personality". The educational ideal is understood as a "normative model of the person, fundamentally unattainable in educational practice, but they are given the value orientation of education. It is determined by the estate-class, national, religious interests of the people, the political, economic, cultural needs of society, historical features, traditions and customs. "
The ideal of man is reflected in art, religion, science, politics. He not only reflects social life, he leads a society. Books that a person reads, speeches he hears at political rallies, scientific ideas that he perceives, can not but affect the formation of his individual consciousness. Ideals force a person to define for himself the meaning of life, a way of life and behavior.
The formation of a social ideal is a fairly mobile phenomenon. New discoveries in science, new political trends, new trends in art have a greater or lesser impact on public consciousness.
Many objective reasons are reflected in the formation of the goals of education. The patterns of physiological maturation of the body, the mental development of people, the achievements of philosophical and pedagogical thought, the level of public culture set the general direction of the goals. But the determining factor is always the ideology, the policy of the state.
The state determines the social order. A social order is a request from the state for the results of the activity of the school as a social institution. The social order is fixed in government documents, such as the US Law "On Education". The goal of education (in this case, education is widely understood and includes both education and upbringing) is defined as follows: the formation of a common culture of the individual, the adaptation of the individual to the life of society, the creation of the basis for conscious choice and development of professional educational programs. Thus, the state sees the goal of education as ensuring the self-determination of the individual, creating conditions for her self-realization; in the formation of a person and citizen, integrated into the society that is contemporary to him. The law focuses on the positive development of the individual in accordance with the requirements of society and the state.
The goal, formulated in state documents, gives only a general guideline for the work of the teacher. It really is not measurable. In order for it to work, it must be translated into the language of specific pedagogical tasks. The level of formulation of these tasks depends on the level of understanding of the theory and practice of upbringing by teachers.
The teacher is a significant subject of goal-setting. The educator in the pedagogical activity realizes not only the state order, but also his interests and intentions, asserts his worldviews. Any state order, in order for it to reach the student, must be understood and accepted by the teacher.
The goals and objectives of the school should be formulated on the basis of a scientific analysis of reality, taking into account the real contradictions of the educational process. They must be coordinated with the social order and open the prospect of the development of each individual person.
It is difficult to overestimate the ability and ability of parents to correctly determine the goals and objectives of upbringing, as the moral, physical, mental bases of personality development are laid in the family.
Parents are responsible for educating their children before the state and society. Therefore, the goals of education in the family should not contradict the expectations of the state and society. At various stages of the child's development, the family contacts with educational and upbringing institutions, the coordination of goals and objectives of the school and family is a necessary condition for harmonious educational influence.
Often, parents tend to raise their children in accordance with their life goals, those that are sought for themselves and which, of course, should be achieved by their children. However, the child has his desires, interests and meanings, so it is extremely important to coordinate his pedagogical attitudes with the interests of the child.
Each person at a certain stage of life should formulate for himself the purpose and meaning of life. The question is how much a person is willing to define his own goal, especially since the process of comprehending the purpose and meaning of life does not stop throughout the life course. The child up to a certain point acts on the basis of drives, desires, interest. Only in the early youth a person begins to determine for himself the purposes and meaning of life.
Every person should become a subject of life. The ability of the individual to regulate, organize his life path as a whole, subordinated to its goals, values, meaning, is the highest level and genuine optimal quality of the subject of life.
As soon as a person begins to realize himself, his "I", he tends to define himself, to self-determine. Personality contains an active "I" subject in the form of a system of plans, relationships, orientation, semantic entities. "I myself", says a three-year-old child, and this is the desire to declare their interests. The fact is that a man, unlike an animal, does not adapt to the environment, be it a biological or social environment, but interacts with the environment, as a result of which he not only changes himself, but also changes the environment. Personality is actively mastering and purposefully transforming nature, society and himself.
Activity is an active relation of man to the world, the ability to produce socially significant transformations in the world on the basis of appropriating the riches of material and spiritual culture. Activity manifests itself in creative activity, volitional acts, communication.
Personality, in order to take place as a subject of life, should be able to exercise initiative and responsibility, must master the social ways of implementing the initiative, gain experience of interaction with the socio-psychological environment in the process of implementing their initiatives. In the mind of the individual, initiatives must be clearly linked with responsibility. The whole educational process should be guided by the disclosure of the essential forces of man.
Thus, the general and individual goals of education are singled out. The goal of education is general, when it expresses the qualities that must be formed in all people, and as an individual, when the upbringing of a certain person is supposed. Progressive pedagogy stands for unity and alignment of common and individual goals.
The goal expresses the general purposefulness of education. In practical implementation, it acts as a system of specific tasks. The goal and tasks are related as a whole and part, the system and all the components. Therefore, the following definition is also true: the goal of education is a system of tasks being solved by upbringing.
In modern conditions, society makes certain requirements to the level of human development. This, probably, should be a highly educated specialist with the ability to confidently navigate in the rapidly changing conditions of social life.
Today, the main goal of the secondary general education school is to contribute to the mental, moral, emotional and physical development of the personality, to fully disclose its creative possibilities, to form humanistic relations, to provide various conditions for the flowering of the individuality of the child, taking into account its age features. The concretization of educational tasks is presented in the chapter "Education in the educational and extracurricular activities of school children."
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