2.5. International legislation in the field of legal provision of social services
An important source of law in the field of social security are international norms, since international cooperation covers a wide range of healthcare, medical science and social and labor issues and occupies an important place in the overall system of international relations of the Russian Federation. At the stage of international cooperation, managers and specialists from departments of the US Department of Health and the US Department of Labor and Social Protection, federal services and agencies directly participate in the development and implementation of joint international projects and programs, as well as agreements on international cooperation.
The generally recognized international legal acts include such acts as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948; The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 16 December 1966; The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of December 19, 1966 is also an example of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was approved by the UN General Assembly on November 20, 1989.
According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of the human person can be realized only if conditions are created in which everyone can enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights. Member States of the United Nations are obliged to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and freedoms, and each individual, having responsibilities with respect to other people and the collective to which he belongs, must seek the promotion and observance of rights recognized by the world community.
International acts that directly affect the interests of social development are:
o Declaration of Social Progress and Development of 1969,
o Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development, 1995,
o European Social Charter 2000. Other international acts are:
o The Tallinn Guidelines for Human Development Activities in Relation to Persons with Disabilities, 1989;
o The Principles for the Protection of Mentally Ill Persons and the Improvement of Mental Health Care, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1991;
o The Standard Rules for the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1993;
o Salamanca Declaration on Principles, Policies and Practical Activities in the Education of Persons with Special Needs, 1994;
o The Madrid Declaration of 2007, adopted by the meeting of the group of experts entitled "The participation of civil society in the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities - it should give results."
The last international legal act signed and ratified by Russia is the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 13, 2006 (signed on behalf of the Russian Federation in New York on September 24, 2008, ratified by the Federal Law of May 3 2012. "On the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities").
Let's consider some international acts in more detail.
Declaration of social progress and development (proclaimed by resolution 2542 (XXIV) of the UN General Assembly on December 11, 1969). According to its provisions, all peoples and all people, regardless of race, color, sex, language, religion, nationality, ethnic origin, family or social status or political or other opinion, have the right to live in dignity and in freedom and enjoy the fruits social progress and should, for their part, contribute to it. According to Art. 2 Declarations "social progress and development are based on respect for the dignity and worth of the human person and ensure the development of human rights and social justice, which requires:
o the immediate and final elimination of all forms of inequality, exploitation of peoples and individuals, colonialism, racism, including Nazism and apartheid, and all other policies and ideologies that are contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations;
o recognition and effective implementation of civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights without any discrimination. "
The main conditions for social progress and development are:
o national independence based on the right of peoples to self-determination;
o the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of states;
o respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of states;
o the inalienable sovereignty of each state over its natural wealth and resources;
o the right and responsibility of each state to freely determine its goals for social development, establish its order of priority and determine, in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter, the means and methods of their accomplishment without any outside interference;
o peaceful coexistence, friendly relations and cooperation of states, regardless of the differences between their social, economic and political systems.
Each government plays a primary role and is responsible for the social progress and welfare of its people, planning social development measures as part of comprehensive development plans, uniting or encouraging and coordinating all national efforts to achieve this goal and to implement the necessary changes in the social structure. The planning of social development measures takes due account of the diversity in the needs of developing and developed areas, urban and rural areas of each country.
Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development (adopted by the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, 6-12 March 1995). The Declaration proclaims that social development and social justice are necessary to ensure and maintain peace and security within and between countries. Social development and social justice can not be achieved in the absence of peace and security, as well as respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Social development is essential to meeting the needs and aspirations of people around the world and to fulfill the responsibilities of governments and all sectors of civil society. The states that have ratified the Declaration confirm that in the economic and social sense the most productive are those policies and those investments that allow people to realize their potential, resources and opportunities to the maximum extent.
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