Organization and functioning of the environmental management system
As a result of studying the material of the chapter, the student must:
• ecological criteria of rational nature management, deeply comprehend their ecological and biological essence;
be able to
• Analyze specific production, service, household situations in order to maintain the environmental situation at the required level;
• evaluate the prospects of using new achievements in environmental science in the organization of modern industries and business;
• determine the priority directions of the environmental service of the enterprise;
• the methodology for creating an environmental service in the enterprise;
• The practical side of compiling the enterprise's environmental reporting;
• methods of management of the environmental services of the enterprise.
Stages of development and scheme for implementing the system
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The main stages of implementation and operation of the environmental management system according to ISO 14001 generally resemble the similar requirements prescribed in BS 7750 with minor changes.
At the first stage of creating an environmental management system, an organization must develop an environmental policy.Environmental Policy is a special document that describes the intentions and principles of the organization's activities in the field of natural resources use.
This document should serve as a basis for environmentally significant actions of the organization and definition of environmental goals and objectives. Environmental policy should:
• correspond to the scale, nature and environmental impacts created by the activities, products and services of the enterprise;
• Among others, contain statements about the desire to comply with existing national environmental regulations, as well as continuous improvement of the environmental management system and prevention of pollution. The document should be brought to the attention of all employees of the organization and be accessible to the public.
Environmental policy is a kind of "engine" in the implementation and improvement of the environmental protection system for this organization. Also, environmental policy helps to maintain and improve the environmental performance of the organization. Therefore, environmental policy should contain the obligation of the company's management to comply with existing environmental laws and constantly improve the environmental management system in the enterprise. Environmental policy forms the basis for setting the company's target and planned environmental indicators. It should be sufficiently clear that internal and external stakeholders can understand it, should be periodically analyzed and revised to reflect the changing conditions in which the organization operates.
The second stage in the development of an environmental management system, the standard proposes a planning stage.
At this stage, the organization must develop and follow procedures for assessing significant environmental impacts. At the planning stage, it is necessary to choose the environmental aspects that will be taken into account in the operation of the environmental management system. The considered ecologically significant effects should be connected not only directly with the production activity of the organization, but also with its products and services. In addition, the organization must systematically take into account all legislative requirements related to the environmental aspects of its activities, products and services, as well as all other requirements related to environmental impacts.
It is necessary that the enterprise constantly update information on the following environmental aspects:
• discharges into the water;
• emissions into the air;
• radioactive contamination of the terrain;
• wastewater disposal and treatment;
• use of raw materials and natural resources;
• Other local environmental and social problems.
Since environmental legislation is very dynamic, the organization must create and maintain a "tracking" system. constantly changing requirements of legislative acts. Target and planned environmental indicators should be defined at the enterprise. Goals and objectives are quantitative as possible, based on environmental policy and defined for each area of activity and each level of the enterprise. When formulating them, the views of the "interested parties" should also be taken into account. Recall that stakeholders are understood to be any groups of people whose interests are affected by the environmental aspects of the enterprise, or who are concerned about these aspects. When establishing and analyzing its targets, the organization must take into account the requirements of existing environmental regulations. An environmental management program should be developed that includes:
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• Distribution of responsibility for achieving target and planned environmental indicators;
• the means and the time frame in which they are to be achieved.
To ensure the operation of the environmental management system, sufficient human, technological and financial resources should be allocated, and the responsible person responsible for the operation of the environmental management system at the level of the organization, whose duties should periodically report to management about the operation of the environmental management system.
The third stage of the creation and implementation of the environmental management system at the enterprise according to ISO 14000 is the stage of the direct implementation of and the functioning of the environmental management system.
At the implementation stage, the distribution of duties, responsibilities and powers between specific people is first made. Further, the organization must determine its training needs. This is due to the fact that personnel performing work that can have a significant impact on the environment, must have a certain competence. It is necessary that all personnel whose work can significantly affect the environment are adequately trained. It is necessary to conduct training of personnel for abnormal situations related to the impact on the environment.
Then, at the implementation stage, the system of internal communication between different levels and divisions of the organization is established. At the same stage, the organization should envisage external information processes about its environmental aspects and registration of its decisions. All the information on the system of environmental management organization should be maintained in proper condition. This information should include the main elements of the administrative management system and their interaction, as well as provide guidance on the documents associated with them. A management system for all documents related to the activities of the environmental management system at the enterprise should be developed and implemented. Such a system should provide a quick search for the necessary document, facilitate the periodic analysis and its revision for their adequacy. At the implementation stage, it is also necessary to carry out the & quot; operations management & quot; step, in which it is required to determine those stages of the technological process and activities that are associated with the main environmental aspects of the operation of the enterprise.
Then the organization should ensure the functioning of the system, allowing to assess the likelihood of accidents and emergencies, which in turn can damage the environment. To do this, a system for monitoring the main parameters of activities that can have a significant impact on the environment must be built.
The next stage of ISO 14001 is called conducting inspections and corrective actions . According to the standard, a periodic audit of the environmental management system should be conducted.
To this end, procedures should be established to periodically verify the compliance of key parameters of the company's activities with current legislative and other requirements in the field of environmental protection. On the basis of monitoring data, inspections and adjustments are made in technological processes aimed at reducing or eliminating the identified significant environmental impact. Any corrective or preventive action taken to eliminate the causes of the identified non-compliance should be in proportion to the importance of the problem and commensurate with the identified environmental impact.
All information relating to the operation of the environmental management system and the state of the environment must be documented in the form of registered data. Registered environmental data may include the following information:
• inspection reports, maintenance reports;
• reports on environmentally significant incidents;
• information on existing environmental regulations,
• records of complaints about the state of the environment;
• records of environmental training of personnel;
• information on important environmental aspects;
• etc ...
An environmental audit at the enterprise is conducted to determine whether the environmental management system conforms to the requirements of the ISO 14001 standard, is implemented and is working properly. In the course of the audit, the data obtained in the course of environmental and technical monitoring are widely used. The audit can be conducted by both the company itself and the external party. The audit results are necessarily reported to the company's management.
The final stage of the audit and adjustment phase is the analysis of the environmental management system by the management. The management of the organization should periodically review the operation of the environmental management system in terms of its adequacy and effectiveness. The purpose of such an analysis is to ensure the continued adequacy and effectiveness of the environmental management system. As a result, it is possible to introduce changes in environmental policy, target environmental indicators and other elements of the environmental management system.
If the constructed system of environmental management functions normally, this inevitably leads to an increase in the level of environmental efficiency of the enterprise. And, conversely, the level of environmental efficiency of the enterprise can assess the adequacy of the functioning of the environmental management system.
Thus, it is obvious that the environmental management system should be closely integrated with the overall organization management system.
The ISO 14001 standard does not require that persons responsible for the operation of the environmental management system have no other responsibilities or documents related to environmental management were allocated to a special document management system.
The ISO 14001 standard sets the requirements for an environmental management system. It is designed so that it can be applied to organizations of all types and sizes, taking into account various geographical, cultural and social conditions. A model of this approach is shown in Fig. 2.1. The overall objective of the standard is to support measures to protect the environment and prevent its pollution while maintaining a balance with socio-economic needs.
Fig. 2.1. Model for the implementation and operation of the environmental management system according to ISO 14001
As can be seen from the model, the concept is based on the need for continuous improvement and development of the environmental management system in the enterprise and the associated environmental performance of the enterprise.
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