Arguments of official science - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

9.2. Arguments of official science

The decoding of the human genome, the creation of a cloned creature has not helped the teachers. The center of upbringing has not been discovered, and the genes responsible for education and training have not been discovered. Only new questions have been raised, which still do not have answers. Among them are the most important: is man self-sufficient to realize the potential inherent in him, what does he need from without and what can he derive from himself? In the formation of the spiritual world of man, nature is only an aid, and education is the main thing? Is human spirituality determined by a set of programs or only by the level (state) of their activation? Then follow the derivative questions that for modern teachers sound strange and even scary: what is the moral in the information society? Do people need morals in the traditional sense of it? what are the values ​​in the modern world, and which of them are needed by an information person?

Since there are many possible scenarios of life and behavior, what programs should be unlocked by upbringing, and which ones are suppressed? Should a person coordinate his life with the life of other people, should it be formed as a social being? It is possible to raise other questions, life itself has already put them to us, for example, same-sex marriages, the unwillingness of people to create families, the appearance of lumpen families demanding bread and circuses, the disappearance of a kind and trusting child, and so on. Questions multiply, and if we do not know how to solve them, then they themselves become solutions.

No questions are resolved, as long as there is no clarity, there is no theory indicating the path to success, so we will concentrate our efforts on consideration of the mechanisms of upbringing (education, education), try to understand how and what happens when a person creates from himself a person by his own efforts or and with the help of other people - external education.

The main areas of application of educational efforts have long been considered body and soul. If we recognize the formation of a person as the education, the programming of his life, then the material center of education we must consider the whole man, and above all his brain, the central and peripheral nervous system that control everything.

How is upbringing going on? What mechanisms are involved in this most complex of processes, the result of which is a well-educated, educated person? Such questions in the pedagogy of the last centuries were not asked, because no one could answer them anyway. Education is accepted as a given. It exists, exists as a part of life. But what and how it happens is not known. Pedagogy by means of its methods simply invades this process, hoping to accelerate it and get the desired results.

However, if pedagogy seeks to manage the process of upbringing, to subordinate it to itself, it has no other way but to search for an explanation of the mechanisms of upbringing, to understand how it occurs.

The stock of modern scientific knowledge for this is clearly not enough. If the science of man still can not answer the simple question of why the heart beats, it is useless to demand from it an explanation of the essence of spiritual processes. In this regard, everything that will be said about the mechanisms of upbringing below, can be considered a hypothesis built on the totality of modern scientific concepts.

We use the latest knowledge of human sciences and, above all, philosophy, physiology, biology, genetics, psychology, medicine.

From philosophy we take the only correct statement in this whole science - "cognize yourself." He is credited with Socrates, but, it seems, Socrates merely reminded his descendants and formulated in his own way. In many pre-Socrates sources, the ancient Indian Vedas, for example, this call sounds better: "Come into your temple". In Moses it is different: "Listen to yourself"; & Listen to yourself & quot ;; "Hear, Israel, listen to yourself, listen to yourself."

& quot; I am alpha and omega & quot; (Apocalypse);

& quot; Self-knowing Wise & quot; (Proverbs);

& quot; If you do not know yourself ... go out & quot; (Song of Songs);

& quot; Know Yourself & quot; (Thales);

& quot; Know the person in yourself & quot; (G. Skovoroda);

& quot; Listen to yourself better ... & quot; (The Bible);

& quot; Enter your temple ... & quot; (The Bible);

& quot; Go back to your house ... & quot; (The Bible);

& quot; The Spirit of God lives in us ... & quot; (The Bible);

"The second person is Lord from heaven ... & quot; (The Bible).

All these sayings can mean only one thing: the man himself is the measure of all things. All that he needs is in himself. He brought everything necessary to this world with him. Consequently, all his ideas, morality, education, knowledge, including knowledge, are congenital. So does a person need some more specially organized upbringing if he is perfectly brought up, according to our human ideas, from birth already?

It seems that it is not upbringing for a person. He needs a push, a hint, help: how to understand yourself, how to determine what forces are dormant in it, how best to direct them to your own good and the benefit of other people. You need an external orientation to unlock the desired programs. Without God's and human help, the boy will long seek the right path in this life. Many and many do not find it or find it in the declining years, when nothing can be fixed. For this, there is upbringing and help.

Find the true Teacher and follow him, most of all be afraid of false teachings, not everything that you are told, take, think more yourself - ancient advice that has not lost its relevance today. Ancient Indian wisdom says: "The child will certainly learn to eat without a wise teacher, but will not learn to think and understand the world around without a reasonable word. Without food the child will die on the twentieth day. Without reason, it is subject to death in every moment of its life. "

We must accept this wisdom, rely on it, rebuild life. But even if we understand and understand everything that can be done? How, tell us, can we drop all that unimaginable nonsense, which has become a simple and understandable business of upbringing? How will we reconstruct the spoiled minds and souls? How to change the mainstream technology? And can we find the strength to change life?

From physiology we take the doctrine of conditioned reflexes. The conditioned reflex arises as follows. At the time when the animal receives food, which causes the activity of the reflex, an irritant is produced, selected for associative excitation of the reflex. Simultaneous presentation of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned (food) is repeated many times, until the association becomes so strong that the conditioned stimulus begins to cause the same reaction independently. There is a so-called conditioned reflex connection.

IP Pavlov's works seem to us purely physiological, he experiments on "psychic arousal" animal, but realizes that this is only the beginning. To his followers the scientist bequeathed to reach the "very top", where the "hardest department of this mechanism" operates. " This refers to a person whose education according to this scheme can be represented as the formation of long chains of very complex, but still conditioned reflexes. There is no doubt that the education of a person is based on associative connections. We will consider concrete examples in the analysis of training mechanisms. Here, analyzing upbringing in the most general form, we note that just as a dog reacts to food and saliva starts to appear at the sound of the guard's steps, it reacts to all external and internal stimuli and a person, if only he has either an innate , or the acquired & quot; hook & quot; in the mind, allowing at least somehow to connect these irritants with each other.

The effect of a conditioned connection in the education of a person differs significantly from its formation and action in an animal. Suppose that it is still called a "conditioned reflex", but is inherently comparable to the & quot; startup & quot; work of this or that group of programs of the brain.

Are these & quot; reflex arcs & quot; stored? in the deep layers of the human brain or are they created from the very beginning? That's the question of the questions. Does the eye see what it sees or only relates what it sees to what it wants to see? Reformulating the question in this way, we will no longer be so confidently refuse to refuse. According to our assumptions, the eye is a monitor by which the brain checks the correctness of its already existing data in its repository. He determines whether he responds to what he sees, to what he supposedly should have seen in this case. If you suddenly wake a sleeping hamster, he will get a heart attack: in fact, instead of the pleasant landscape that usually opens to him after hibernation, he sees the face of his master. Surprise, fear, and other powerful shocks can bring a person to the same condition. This means that our brain does not contain knowledge, not images or even ideas, but vague ideas (chimeras) about everything that it can meet in those conditions where it has received life.

How can all this be adapted to education? It has long and unmistakably used these well-known links: if the connection should be fixed firmly and forever, then it must be preceded by a very powerful stimulus. After strong upheavals, the program of behavior is permanently permanently active and, in effect, closed to perestroika. It becomes dominant and determines later the behavior and the whole life of the person. If, say, a slave is given a life, his neck was released from the rope by order of the master, a violent restructuring of the program took place. The slave now owes his master's life and no further education to change his actions. When the program is completed, all questions of its reorganization and further education are closed. We constantly see similar processes in our cruel life. They are especially naked in the films loved by the public, where the violent change in behavioral programs is always completed by the same - either destruction or submission.

And what will happen if a person will always see what his brain expects to see? Smooth activation of programs, the emergence of those sites that are currently needed. When necessity disappears, they go away (are forgotten), are replaced by others. Thus, nothing much happens except the activation of the necessary sections of the programs. The most successful activation will be in those cases when the mindset and what the eyes see, hear the ears, feel the nose, coincide with its expectations, when the concepts, representations conflictlessly overlap with the surrounding life. Harmony with the environment - this is the highest level of man's upbringing.

We do not part with physiology yet. Physiological mechanisms are not yet fully understood by teachers. Today, many knowledge known in science are highlighted by new facets. Let's continue the analysis.

The sensation number one is called the sense of smell, despite the fact that no more than 2% of information from the outside world gets through the nose to the human brain. Although a person is able to distinguish a little more than 5 thousand smells, (the dog distinguishes 10 times more), the information transmitted by them, for a person is of paramount importance. Smells penetrate all corners of the brain. Perhaps it is the smells that activate and launch programs that help a person determine where he is. American astronaut E. Aldrin for a long time could not get rid of the smell of moon dust that struck him. In the old legend of the Evans-potion, it tells how the smell helped to bring back the feeling of the motherland that had long left the native land.

Scientists are still arguing about how a person perceives smells. There is a chemical theory, according to which the smell is the result of the presence in the air of a specific concentration of molecules of smelling substances. They are perceived by receptors, which in humans are more than 800 million. Moreover, each type of cell has its own connection with the brain. The wave theory of odors, their origin and transmission, is associated with the excitation and vibrations of atoms of aromatic substances. Theories, although fairly definite, and modern, are not accepted by everyone. Why?

More than 2 thousand years ago the famous Roman Lucretius Car in the essay "About the nature of substances" put forward a stereochemical hypothesis of the perception of odors. He stated that there are small pores of various shapes and sizes on the palatal part of the oral cavity. The smell is felt when the smelling substances coincide in shape with the pores and enter them.

By shifting his views on the modern theory of the programmable brain, it can be argued that the brain has a ready-made view of any odor that can penetrate the brain. The sense organs of a person can skip only a certain range (range) of smells, and then the programs will determine everything that is associated with them, new subprograms will start, to which this information will be important. In other words, having penetrated into the brain cell, aromatic particles activate certain parts of the programs, where the smell is identified (it is determined whether it is the smell that is supposed to be heard). The resulting irradiation of cells, spreading, finds a response in those parts of the programs that will respond to its request. It is known that it is the odors that cause the strongest associations and can activate long-extinct links.

Probably, everything just happens with the perception of visual and auditory information. In the brain, quanta of the external world penetrate, programs analyze and identify them, and information that propagates through the program translates some of its parts into new states.

Especially we should pay attention to the fact that the eye sees only a small portion of the light spectrum, the ear hears sounds in a small range, the nose can only distinguish smells of a certain direction and strength. What does it say? Only that of the whole set of programs, only those that are necessary and sufficient for life under terrestrial conditions became active at birth. It is completely incomprehensible why a person might need to distinguish, for example, 100 thousand smells, to see and hear in the ultraviolet or infrared range. Why does he need an ultrafast count or slow heart rate? Why do we need super-knowledge, which a person can not properly dispose of due to spiritual poverty? After all, crazy people always get only one thing: weapons.

It is suggested that instead of cloning such imperfect creatures, one could direct efforts to self-improvement not so much by interfering with the gene program, but rather by increasing the ranges of our sense of the external world. Perhaps, when new feelings are added to our senses, when we look at the world through the eyes of a cat, we feel its smells with the nose of a dog, we hear the infrasound of the Cosmos with the ears of an animal, we will discover more, we will grow wiser and more like a man. Maybe it will return to us what was lost in our programs.

What's new for understanding the mechanisms of education offers us psychology ? It describes a person through mental processes, states. Hundreds of different explanations contradicting each other - this is so far the general result of the efforts of psychologists to study the personality. It is not only impossible, but also risky, to use these patchwork theories as the basis for education. The subject of upbringing is a whole man - lost in them. What will help teachers, for example, the personality theory of Kretschmer and Sheldon, where the nature of the person's psychic reactions is related to his physical constitution? High and thin people, as the researchers say, have a retarded psyche and are prone to shyness and loneliness; strong and muscular, on the contrary, have a dynamic psyche and differ in the desire for domination, domination. For the teacher all of them are inmates. Should he conclude that the possibilities of educating these people are already predetermined by nature in advance?

Psychologists have proposed several theories (they are also called concepts and even models) the ratio of various elements, levels and systems of mental structure that can be used to explain individual aspects of upbringing. The most important theories for education are the psychoanalytic 3. Freud and the analytic K. Jung.

The human psyche, according to Freud, includes three areas: conscious, unconscious and preconscious, which are among themselves in a state of dynamic interaction. For the first two systems - conscious and unconscious - the struggle that determines a person's mental life is characteristic. The result of this struggle is every spiritual act and human act.

For education, the system of the unconscious is of primary importance. It is she, according to Freud, serves as the source of all the mental forces and energies of the individual. This system received the designation & quot; It & quot ;.

In the human psyche there are hidden ideas, the presence of which the person does not realize. They are manifested in reservations, errors in memory and speech, forgetting, etc. It is believed that for the diagnosis of education errors are very significant. Delayed pauses in front of some words, reservations, slurs of the pupil may indicate some insincerity of his judgments, of his hidden and unconscious aspirations. Many diagnostic tests are built on this.

Describing the unconscious as the "logical inevitable phase of the processes that our psychic activity manifests," Freud distinguishes such features as:

1) it is non-verbal (non-verbal),

2) "it never dies", does not lose its dynamic strength and energy;

3) he is denied direct access to the conscious;

4) the dynamics of its formation the unconscious is repressed, formed throughout the life of a person without any involvement of consciousness;

5) the laws of its functioning differ from the laws of conscious activity; unconscious & quot; does not pay attention & quot; the change of day and night, birth and death, lives "all the time", - at once past, present and future. Here, it seems, Freud himself without realizing it, speaks about the most important thing - about never dying ideas, stored "all the time" in deep brain programs.

As Freud teaches, in its content the unconscious represents the inner element of mental processes, the "boiling cauldron" instincts, affects, emotions, drives, on the basis of which separate groups of emotional experiences are formed and even their entire groups - complexes. A decisive role in the formation of complexes is played by inclinations. They constitute the basic fund of the unconscious. Attitudes are divided into two groups:

- drives & quot; I & quot ;, whose purpose is self-preservation of the individual;

- Sexual attractions (libido), whose goal is the continuation of the race; they are born with the body of a man and lead a never-fading life in his psyche.

The unconscious as a psychic structure in Freud's psychoanalysis is not something inferior, dark and immoral in the socio-psychological sense, but one that is capable of bearing a conscious and even creative beginning.

The second layer of the psyche according to Freud - Ideal-I or "Super-I" - a source of mental strength and energy for interacting with reality and, above all, with the phenomena of moral and cultural life. & quot; Super-I & quot; is formed under the influence of the social environment and prohibitions. Accepting the functions of moral consciousness, it evaluates all the acts and mental acts of the individual from the point of view of the "good" and & quot; evil & quot ;. To his manifestations can be attributed "sudden awakening of conscience" in a person, the appearance of an "unconscious sense of guilt", rigor and contempt for oneself. Acting as a censor, whose dictates are carried out by repression, "Super-I" detects myself as a moral and even & quot; hypermoral & quot; (in the terminology of Freud) a psychic force that consciousness can not overcome. In the practice of education, the psychic phenomena "Super-I" exercise moral control over behavior. Often in the mental structure of personality there is a clash of moral and pragmatic (profitable for the matter) judgments.

As the third layer of the psychic structure of the personality, Freud calls the preconscious I'm ". It is located between the & quot; Super-I & quot; and & quot; It & quot; (unconscious), connecting them as an intermediary. Here, psychic experiences are subjected to a kind of double censorship. The principle of pleasure, which dominated the unconscious, gives way to the new principle of psychic life - reality. It evaluates the relevance and the possibility of performing an action motivated by the needs of "It's". After censorship, mental elements receive a verbal (verbal) design and only after that pass into consciousness. Unverified & quot; reality principle & quot; mental elements (for example, antisocial, selfish needs, aggressive, sexual drives) are forced back into the system of the unconscious. Thus, anything that is conscious or can enter into it is strictly regulated. Let's remember the last conclusion: for understanding the mechanisms of education it is very important.

& quot; The Imaginative I & quot; includes the processes of thinking and memory, which carry out a selective selection and sorting of desires, drives of the unconscious and the ideas corresponding to them, in accordance with the realities of the external world. For the practice of education, the mental processes taking place in the preconscious are of particular importance. First, they contribute to mental orientation in a particular educational situation, defining the space-time framework of communication and real conditions. Secondly, the processes of the preconscious affect, and very significantly, the interactive information phase of education. Including filtering mechanisms, they provide registration and even a short-term storage of the small part of the information that is most important at the moment.

Between the systems of the & quot; unconscious & quot ;, & quot; Super-I & quot; and & quot; preconscious & quot; conflict zones that will destabilize a person if I & quot; unable to restore agreement between them. Conflicts result in frustrations, ie. such mental states, which are accompanied by negative emotions and experiences. Frustrations are prompted by the "I" relieve tension with the help of a variety of "exhaust valves", which include psychological defense mechanisms - suppression, rejection, displacement, sublimation, reactive training, projection and rationalization.

All these mechanisms are important in upbringing, but sublimation, projection and rationalization are most significant. Sublimation as a form of repression is that a person directs his actions and behavior toward a different goal, in return for the one that was originally set, but was unattainable. In this case, the substitution of the goal brings personality satisfaction. Projection, consisting in giving other people their own feelings that are not acceptable from the point of view of the "Super-I" can find expression in the contact phase of education. Goodwill, a smile, a slight inclination of the head neutralize possible negative emotions. Rationalization - finding convenient reasons to justify the inability to perform certain actions - often occurs in upbringing.

How, from where and by what path can a person get vital for the self-assertion of his "I"? positive impulses? The answer to this question is open

3. Freud's unconscious psychological mechanism, called infantilism (from Latin infantus - a child). The essence of infantilism lies in the fact that a person, as it were, takes responsibility for his fate and delegates his rights to a real or fictitious person. The child is psychologically

feels more comfortable than an adult. He is more stress-resistant, because he unconsciously shifts to the adult the adoption of vital decisions for him. Hence the recognition of the authority of the adult, and the willingness to carry out his orders. Hence the force that drives the upbringing. Adults also are prone to infantilism, handing God their lives and destiny. At the same time, God fulfills the functions of the father in relation to man, and constant prayers serve as a means of communication with him.

Of interest is the interaction of mental structures in upbringing. Reason allows you to describe the situation, feelings - its assessment, will acts as the source of the prescription. Depending on the specific circumstances of life, this or that factor comes to the forefront, then we say that the student thinks, agitates or tries to do what he does not want at all.

Psychologists describe various & quot; I & quot; the person to whom upbringing should rest. Let's pay attention to two levels of its manifestation and functioning.

& quot; I & quot; -shape is that the pupil himself thinks about himself, his idea of ​​himself. In a normal person, this knowledge is necessarily positive - the pupil must present himself better than he really is. Self-esteem here is conscious and acts in the form of self-esteem.

Real & quot; I & quot; - this is what really is. Here in the foreground is not knowledge, but evaluation, and, as a rule, not realized and not always positive. In the latter case we are dealing with an inferiority complex. This unconscious feeling, as psychologists say, drives a person more than a conscious estimate, and often leads to an excess of desire for self-assertion.

The problem of the relationship of the "I" image and the real "I" has a pronounced pedagogical aspect, essential from the point of view of everyday education. Because & quot; I & quot; pupils do not coincide, it is important to know the real "I", which determines the level of his upbringing and reflects a real, rather than an imaginary attitude to problems.

Everything here is both right and wrong at the same time. Z. Freud draws us his understanding of the work and interaction of brain programs. In terms of general discussions with him you can agree, but nothing concrete for education from them should not. If the main task of education is to help the growing up person to activate the necessary programs, then everything is decided in a concrete way: what programs, what kind of behavior the person himself and the people around him need. General orientations like all-round and harmonious development are indispensable here. Specific properties-habits of behavior, especially uncomplicated, we have learned to form, even if we do not understand all the subtleties of the operation of all mechanisms.

The approach of K. Jung seems more fruitful for education, and not only because it describes the functioning of a healthy psyche. The main manifestation of the mental structure of the personality, in his opinion, is not the libido, but the " psychic energy itself". By this concept, Jung means all more or less definitely expressed and decorated the energy of which is born from the interaction of opposites.

Emphasizing the uniqueness of psychic energy, its irreducibility to the biochemical processes of the brain, Jung insists on her personal nature, which, however, is not created by the human individual at will, but, on the contrary, transforms it in the process of awakening consciousness. At the same time as the foundation of the psyche of the individual, giving the definite form to its content, is the unconscious, which makes up the deepest level of the unconscious and is essentially different from the personal unconscious2. What Jung calls the "collective unconscious" is that teachers were recently called "social inheritance", and in the old philosophical terminology they were "innate ideas" contained in deep layers of brain programs.

There are some of its features:

1) the collective unconscious is inherited by the person;

2) it is not based on personal experience and does not develop individually;

3) its content is mostly represented by archetypes (literally & quot; primary models & quot ;, previous forms), which only become secondary in a secondary way.

Archetypes (from the Greek arhe - start and typos - image) - & quot; ... innate ideas or memories that predispose people to perceive, experience and react to events in a certain way ... It is the innate tendency to react emotionally, cognitively and behaviorally to specific situations - for example, in an unexpected encounter with parents, a loved one, a stranger, snake or death. "

Archetypes are like instincts and are unconscious images of instincts themselves or patterns of instinctive behavior. They act as a priori forms of people's mental activity. Archetypes are as many as there are typical life situations. "Infinite repetition has minted this experience on the pascha of the psychic constitution - not in the form of images filled with content, but primarily as forms without content, representing only the possibility of a certain type of perception and type of action," writes K. Jung.

In the series of archetypes described by Jung, there is a mother, a child, a hero, a sage, a deity of the Sun, a rogue, God and death. Here are some: sage - personification of life wisdom and maturity (symbol - prophet); God is the ultimate realization of the psychic reality projected onto the outside world (the symbol is the sun's eye).

Jung's archetypes are precisely that missing link that helps us to bridge the gap between modern research results and the innate ideas rejected in the past. We see in them a weighty and independent confirmation of the conclusions that will be set out below, and which should strongly influence the restructuring of our views on upbringing. The discrepancies between Jung's ideas and the provisions advocated in this book concern individual parts, but not the picture as a whole. We will return to innate ideas, through which we will try to explain the mechanisms of education. Here we note that innate ideas express the general property of deep-seated cerebral programs, archetypes are only reduced to "primary models," which are located, if one may say so, on the basis of innate ideas closer to preconsciousness. Congenital ideas are deeper, more universal than archetypes.

Archetypes, according to Jung, are activated under the influence of specific situations. The activation of the archetype occurs when a situation arises that corresponds to the given archetype. Then, like an instinctual attraction, the archetype, contrary to all reason and will, makes its way. What is not considered above the model of smell penetration through the pores? The quanta of the situation have penetrated the brain, the corresponding program of analysis and comparison is being launched, the conclusions and the force of influence of which on neighboring sites will be proportional to the strength of the stimulus. The archetype revived and became active in the form of a certain human behavior.

We believe that the support of education for innate ideas, archetypes, in particular, does not require new evidence. Images of the collective unconscious manifest themselves in all typical situations of thinking, activity, behavior of people. If they were not there, a person would have to create new samples each time, which nature naturally could not allow. Recognizing the presence of innate ideas, we will have to rebuild upbringing. We need to realize, in what ways it is easier to liberate the archetypes the people and societies need at the moment, in what ways they are deactivated faster and more easily when the need for them disappears. The question should be posed as follows: how liberty is liberated, and not formed (pushed) into a person.

It should be noted that Jung connects archetypes with a spontaneous, involuntary manifestation of moral emotions, for example, such an emotionally valuable phenomenon as conscience. Very often moral assessment of any action or behavior by an individual is not realized. It can function without the participation of consciousness at the level of the symbolic image caused by a certain archetype. In this case, the behavior can not be identified as & quot; correct & quot; or & quot; wrong & quot ;, & quot; good & quot; or & quot; evil & quot ;. The symbolic image can only indicate the possible uncleanness or immorality of any action or act. In this case, between the conscience (moral reaction) and the moral code (moral law) there is a clash. A true and genuine conscience, according to Jung, can rise above the moral code and not obey his decisions. In most individual cases, K. Jung observes, conscience is manifested as a moral reaction to a real or contemplated deviation from the moral law. Since this moral reaction is at best partially only conscious, for all its morality, it can not claim ethical significance. This value is acquired by the conscience when it is reflexive, i.e. included in a conscious discussion. When collisions of duty and conscience should be preferred to the inner voice of conscience as a primary, more ancient phenomenon, the authority of which always stood higher than the human mind. The main thing is heard in Jung's reasoning - listen to yourself, man, go into your temple.

The collective unconscious is inseparably linked with the personal unconscious. The integrating center of this structure, the archetype of unity and integrity, Jung denoted as & quot; self & quot ;. It is designed to unite all contradictory interactions, to express the integrity of the individual. Becoming & quot; self & quot; occurs in the process of individualization. According to Jung, & quot; self & quot; can be represented as a geometric symbol multiple of four and having a circular structure with a hypothetical center between the conscious and the unconscious. & quot; Self & quot; unites four systems of the psyche: "I", "Persona", "Shadow", "An image of a woman" and "The image of a man".

System & quot; I & quot; is a small part of the psyche. It is the center of consciousness and the whole stream of conscious mental experiences is flowing down here. The consciousness is characterized by narrowness, discreteness, the degree of clarity and low information content.

Mental processes associated with the social face of the personality, adopted by her in relation to other people, Jung included in the second system of the psyche, denoting it as "Persona". This system is responsible for adapting to the external social world. The result of this adaptation are the social roles that the personality plays.

The unconscious, spontaneous mental influences emanating from the inner world of the person acquire a significant significance. Their manifestation is due to the presence in the psychic structure of yet another system, which Jung called the "Shadow". It is a personality unconscious and includes perceptions that have either lost their power and been forgotten, or because of too little intensity they never reached consciousness ... & quot; . These are dormant psychic forces that have great dynamics and can lead a person either to growth or to disaster. Everything depends on the preparedness and attitudes of consciousness. " A person can never "jump over" through your own & quot; Shadow & quot; or & quot; trick & quot; her. On the contrary, the recognition of his own "Shadows" It is necessary for the individual to realize his own imperfection. For parenting & quot; show & quot; to his person "Shadow", i.e. its possible ideal condition, is very useful. Then he is better aware of the bright side of his personality.

The shadow that enters the personal unconscious is inextricably linked with the collective unconscious - the deepest system of the psyche of the individual. This system includes numerous archetypal images, including such as Anima and Animus (images of a woman and men). Acting as archaic forms of psychic phenomena, the images of Anima and Animus are each time reproduced in the individual structure of the personality. Anima is an autonomous archetypal image in the male personality, reproducing in its psychic structure the feminine principle. Animus is the prototype of a man in the psyche of a woman's personality.

Young's provisions formed the basis of personal typology. Emotional, emotional, sensory and intuitive personality types are distinguished. Each of them is oriented in its activity to the corresponding mental functions and is exposed to educational influences in different ways.

In the upbringing cogitative the personality type is more inclined to analyze information, demanding of their mentors, prefers to hide their emotions and feelings. Emotional type of personality, on the contrary, is subject to its emotions and easily lends itself to the emotional influence of the educator, comrades, and group. He makes compromises, but is offensive and uses these means of influence on his comrades. Sensing type quickly orientates in a situation, self-confident, realistic and not inclined to engage in activities that do not promise practical results. The intuitive type thinks for a long time in decision-making, is prone to hesitation, doubt, is anxious.

These types of images brought to specific images show only that programming or release of programs can occur (and practically happens) differently for all people. It can be assumed that this is determined not so much by external circumstances, as by structural features and throughput of communication channels. A flaccid brain with frustrated programs, clogged communication channels, long unrefined, stuffed like a closet or an attic, any nonsense (the expression of K.D. Ushinsky) naturally can not work clearly and reliably. Accumulation from generation to generation disorders do not improve the status of programs. The emergence of talents and geniuses is precisely due to the fact that the brain as a self-developing system managed to get rid of bad programs, making self-programming and restructuring, which gives him the opportunity to look at life easier and sharper.

From medicine we take only the facts that science can not explain yet. Many guesses, assumptions, disputes, but the truth is not established. The first question: what is schizophrenia? pathology or norm? Do not hurry with the answer. Today, an increasing number of specialists consider this not a disease, but a special kind of brain activity, in which the brain is extremely naked and susceptible to cosmic influences. Man is in constant connection with the Cosmos. Apparently, this is such a difficult and unusual experience that a person can not cope with himself. Both to himself and to us it seems incomprehensible. The brain of an ordinary person (not sick, according to our notions) has become so protected in the literal sense - by the impenetrable layers of dead cells, and in the portable - by protective laziness, that he can no longer communicate with the world information field.

Disease & quot; talent & quot; sometimes referred to as the "split personality", because man seems to get used to the events of two different worlds. But the & quot; bifurcation & quot; Is still a norm compared to the disease of "genius" - & quot; Crucifixion & quot;.

We do not know much about this yet, but the fact that our fields of education, teaching, development are influenced by the energy fields of the Universe, under the influence of which certain programs of brain work are started or blocked, can not be denied any more. A lot of incomprehensible is connected with amnesia - loss of memory. This phenomenon endlessly exploits the Western series, squeezing tears from the faint-hearted. Doctors state the state, but do not understand the essence. Meanwhile, everything becomes clearer, as soon as we imagine the brain as a huge container of hierarchically linked programs. Under the influence of various stimuli, some programs can be blocked, others are unlocked. That's all. He remembers - does not remember, knows - does not know, acts anyway, thinks, says, acts - consequences of the intricacies of lock-unlock programs. At everyone it occurs especially, individually.

Our main question is ahead and will be: how to achieve the desired us to unblock the necessary programs? Only we will not answer it yet, because the answer for each person can only be concrete. In general, please, and specifically not.

What do the records mean?

In the & quot; Today & quot; it was reported that a certain Richard Kunda from the Zambian city of Idol has a unique ability to accurately name

the day of the week of any event that has ever happened. In the presence of a special jury, he determined that on May 1, 1873, Wednesday was, and on November 18, 1835, when a solar eclipse could be observed on Zambia's territory, it fell on Tuesday. It is clear: the person has somehow unlocked the Quick Account program. But under the influence of what factors this could happen, it is not clear.

I remember one more fact that has not been explained. In the excavation of the graves of the ancient Mayan tribes, the remains of human heads were found with skulls skewed at the level of the nose. It is suggested that special cranial trepanation could be done only to strengthen communication with the Cosmos and to unblock the necessary programs.

And in our time there are often reports that after some very strong shocks, such as lightning or clinical death, people have amazing properties that were not there before. The world-famous seer Wanga began to possess such a gift after an accident. This confirms that in our brain cells there is any knowledge, we just need to be able to extract the necessary.

An example of talented children shows only one thing: they were lucky to unblock one or several related programs that determined a more active orientation in a certain area of ​​the surrounding world. Many argue, whether gifted, talented people are happy in this world. They are not like everyone else. But is it good to be not so? Talent is not always happiness. Sorrow from the mind, alas, also suffices.

Here, in fact, and all that we were able to squeeze out of the achievements of sciences adjacent to pedagogy. Combined together and examined from one angle of view, the facts, models and theories allow us to conclude that all the most important for education is at all hierarchical levels of one general program of life. Constantly relevant programs are kept closer - in the mind, those that are used less often go down - in the preconscious and subconscious, and the superconscious, or over "I", if they exist, as a self-control program.

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