BRICS: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
The birth of the abbreviation BRIC is due to the analyst of Jim O'Neill, one of the world's largest commercial banks Goldman Sachs , which, using the raw criterion of the growing influence of the economies of the four countries on the world market , combined them into a separate group.
Boris Martynov, Deputy Director of the Institute of Latin American Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, identifies in BRICS another source of integration processes - "a huge civilizational and cultural influence on neighboring countries and regions." This influence is not from politics and economy, but from culture that is broadcast through these two channels and influences the international environment. Each of the participating countries is involved in the creation of so-called civilizational spaces - "Big Russia", "Big China", "Big India" and "Big Brazil". These civilizational circles today reveal much more in common than Russia, China, India, Brazil as states. Therefore, it is much more appropriate to talk about the BRICS countries not as "the ascending countries-giants", but as "upward civilizations" modern world, as civilizational "bricks"; (English BRICS - Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa - consonant with English > bricks & quot; - bricks). The uniqueness of the civilizational resource distinguishes the BRICS countries from the so-called second echelon of the ascending states - Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia and others that have not reached the status of regional centers.
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BRICS positions itself as an informal association, as a demonstration model of the multipolar world. Its & quot; representativeness & quot; is confirmed by the presence of each participant of his region of influence, his economic model, his development strategy, the antiquity of cultures. At first glance, such an integration union may seem controversial and artificial, but the nature of the connections, the spherical interaction, meet the criteria for creating a functional region.
The BRICS countries are differentiated by cultural and religious, socio-political, economic characteristics, which are balanced by the similarity of interests in achieving the goals of sustainable development. From 2011 to 2013, the average growth rates of the economies of the BRICS countries were 4.11%, and the average growth rates of the developed economies - 1.37%.The organizational level of establishing ties within the framework of certain activity spheres is provided by annual summits (the first was held on June 16, 2009 in Yekaterinburg), meetings of finance ministers, representatives of countries, symposiums, etc.
Within the integrating grouping, three main spheres of interaction are defined: political, economic, social. Political implies the formation of a just world order, the creation of a polycentric system of the world, etc .; economic - the transition to a single currency, etc .; social - improving the level of health care, education, assistance to developing countries, etc.
BRICS development can make a significant contribution to the humanitarian sphere, which is now dominated by stereotypes of Western consumer culture. Five integrating countries will be able to represent the interests of regional neighbors and other growing economies.
Russian political scientist Vyacheslav Alekseevich Nikonov believes that BRICS integration strategy is based on the following principles:
- non-directionality against third countries.
Partnership - a new institutional type of international cooperation by industry, providing for the creation of a company, firm, etc., on the basis of a contract. An important characteristic of the partnership is the establishment of a dialogue between prospective participants, including civil society associations along with state organizations.
In recent years, the United States is actively developing this type of interstate cooperation in the economic and financial spheres. A vivid example of an attempt to take the lead was the presentation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership project (the United States, Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam) at the APEC summit in Honolulu in November 2011. Next in line is the creation of the Trans-Atlantic partnership, the negotiations about which are started between the EU and the United States.
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In 2013, Russian nongovernmental organizations initiated the creation of the dialogue platform "Civil BRICS" (Civil BRICS ) for the purpose of creating structures for social partnership in education, science, culture, ecology and business of the BRICS countries.
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