DRUGS THROUGH THE FUNCTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Pharmacology

DRUGS THROUGH THE FUNCTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:

know

• the influence of sedatives on the processes of excitation and inhibition in the central nervous system;

• Features of using over-the-counter drugs;

• the physiological characteristics of sleep;

• classification and mechanisms of action of hypnotics;

• drugs for the treatment of symptomatic cramps;

• psychotropic drugs;

• Normotimic means;

• Classification and mechanisms of action of funds for the treatment of epilepsy;

• funds for the treatment of parkinsonism;

• Features of pharmacological regulation of the functional activity of the central nervous system;

• classification and mechanisms of action of antipsychotics;

• classification and mechanisms of action of tranquilizers;

• classification and mechanisms of action of psychostimulants;

• classification and mechanisms of action of antidepressants;

• classification and mechanisms of action of opioid and non-opioid analgesics;

• the notion of premedication, introductory anesthesia and neuroleptanalgesia;

be able to

• analyze the effect of drugs that regulate the functions of the central nervous system, on the totality of their pharmacological properties;

• Evaluate the use of drugs in this group for pharmacotherapy;

• evaluate the possibility of toxic effects of drugs of this group;

• Prevent side effects of drugs in this group, the development of drug dependence;

• Compare the drugs of this group, evaluate their effectiveness and safety;

• find differences between natural products and their synthetic counterparts;

own skills

• The choice of a medicament that regulates the functions of the central nervous system, based on the combination of its pharmacological properties, mechanisms and localization of action and the possibility of substitution by a drug from other groups;

• the choice of a certain dosage form, dose and route of administration of drugs taking into account the pathological condition;

• predicting the possible interaction of drugs with the combined use of various drugs.

Medicinal substances that affect the central nervous system, change (stimulate or depress) the transmission of nerve impulses in the synapses. Mechanisms of action of substances on CNS synapses are different. Some substances can excite or block in the synapses the receptors with which certain mediators interact. By influencing the synaptic transmission of nerve impulses, drug substances alter the functions of the central nervous system and, as a result, cause various pharmacological effects. Drugs that affect the central nervous system are usually classified according to their main effects. For example, substances that cause sleep belong to a group of sleeping pills, etc. In turn, each of these groups is subdivided into means of general and selective action. If the means of general action interfere with the activity of the central nervous system at all its levels (for example, drugs for anesthesia), then the funds with selective effect affect predominantly certain centers or functional systems without disturbing the central nervous system as a whole (tranquilizers, narcotic analgesics). >

The world sales of funds operating on the central nervous system are slightly less than cardiovascular drugs, with one third of them - anxiolytics and antidepressants. Unique world leaders in the treatment of central nervous system diseases are antidepressants fluoxetine, sertalin, paroxetine.

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