Place and role of interstate associations
With the inability of the former metropolises and the United States to resolve conflicts, African countries have placed their hopes on "blue helmets" UN. However, gradually international organizations, primarily the UN, demonstrated their inability to effectively deal with the ongoing conflicts on the continent. One of the reasons for this inability was that the UN simply did not have the necessary resources and sufficient military contingent, possibly the will to timely and effectively carry out peacekeeping operations.
In this situation, African countries tried to form their own collective mechanisms for resolving contradictions and conflicts. As early as 1963, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was established with the objectives of eliminating all forms of colonialism and racism, strengthening the solidarity of African states, protecting their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence, and promoting international cooperation. By with many questions this organization could not cope.
In 1975, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was established on the basis of the Lagos Agreement, which included 15 countries in the region (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo). The headquarters of ECOWAS is located in Abuja (Nigeria). The objectives of the Community were stated: achieving economic integration of member countries, combating poverty, crime, smuggling, ensuring peace and security in "hot spots" etc. The ECOWAS multinational military units intervened in the conflicts in Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone, for several years were in Liberia. In late 2012 and early 2013, they participated in military operations in Mali, launched by France.
In the 90's. In the past century, individual countries and subregional groups have intervened in the prevention and resolution of internal conflicts in Guinea-Bissau, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Rwanda, Senegal, Lesotho and Somalia. In the Republic of the Congo, Angolan troops were introduced, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - armed units of Uganda, Burundi, Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Chad. Such interventions played a positive role in Mozambique, in the settlement of territorial disputes between Chad and Libya, Nigeria and Cameroon, Eritrea and Yemen, Namibia and Botswana.
The problem of creating its own mechanisms and forces for preventing and resolving conflicts was especially acute for the African Union, which came to replace the OAU. One of the serious steps in this direction was the formation in 2002 and further development of the institutions of the African Architecture of Peace and Security (ARBA). In 2003, the Constitutive Act of the African Union was amended on the right of the Union to direct interference in the internal affairs of Member States in emergency circumstances. Provision was made for non-recognition of governments that came to power unconstitutionally, the imposition of political and economic sanctions against them, armed intervention, etc.
In the mid-1990s. in the south of the continent, an intergovernmental advisory council on politics, defense and security was established, which included 12 countries in the region.
In 1993, the Economic Community of East and Southern Africa (the Comeca) was formed in 19 states of the region (Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Comoros, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, , Rwanda, Swaziland, Seychelles, Sudan, Uganda, Eritrea, Ethiopia). The main objectives of the community were proclaimed the formation of a zone of preferential trade, which was intended to achieve a phased establishment of a free trade zone first, and then a customs union and common market.
In 1994, the Economic Community of Central Africa was established on the basis of the Central African Customs and Economic Union (Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe, Chad). The main goal of the Community is to promote regional integration through the harmonization of economic and monetary policies.
The East African Community (EAC), an intergovernmental organization comprising five East African countries (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda), was established in 1967 and ceased to exist in 1977. The community was formally revived in July 2000 In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Economic Community of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to expand the free trade area and include the member states of all three communities.
The East African Community is one of the pillars of the African Economic Community. In 2010, YOU launched its own common market of goods, labor and capital in the region with the goal of a single currency by 2012 and a full political federation by 2015.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) - the South African trade and economic union was established in 1992 at the Southern African Development Cooperation Conference (SADC). The main goal of the community is the liberalization of trade relations between member countries. At present, SADC has significantly reduced customs duties and made significant progress in eliminating non-tariff restrictions in mutual trade ties. The community has made significant progress towards the creation of a free trade zone. The community unites 14 African states (South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Mozambique, Malawi, Madagascar, Tanzania, Zambia, Mauritius, Democratic Republic of the Congo). Their leaders signed an agreement on the establishment in South Africa of a free trade zone with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of African products on the world market.
With all the efforts of both the international community and the African countries themselves, there is still not seen any effective force capable of ensuring stability and peace on the continent, where the real threat of bloody massacres with political rivals does not cease, and ethnic cleansing takes on hypertrophic dimensions .
The main obstacle to the realization of the above goals is the economic and political factors common to many developing countries, such as the low level of economic development of partner countries, the monocultural commodity structure of exports; the instability of national economies; balance of payments deficit; the lack of political community, the weakness of national state structures, the parallel participation of countries simultaneously in different associations, the adoption of decisions that are not supported by practical steps, etc. Absence of an effective payment system, lack of financial resources, uncertainty of the regional and legal status of the organization, instability of the political situation , civil wars, etc.
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