Stages and dynamics of self-determination in the business
The process of self-determination involves the following stages:
• Reflect changes in the social or professional sphere. For example, a change in the external environment or the criteria for its perception and evaluation (socio-cultural, economic, political, etc.), the appearance of new properties of the subject (after -
Fig. 3.3. The place of self-determination in business among other types of self-determination (model AB Kupreychenko)
experience, education, communication, etc.), adaptation problems that enhance the role of self-determination, etc. Acceptance of their personal problems. Statement of the problem.
• Analysis of external conditions of activity, new requirements to their own professional or social qualities. Correlation of external requirements with personal attitudes and value orientations. Analysis of the problem situation.
• Identification and evaluation of possible alternatives to solve the problem. Search for the direction of development, new qualities necessary for adaptation in this situation.
• Definition of tasks and development prospects, acceptance of oneself in a new quality.
In the course of self-determination in business, there is a choice of direction and objectives of activity, forming its own strategy of economic activity - its principles and ways of interacting with the business world. So, the features of a businessman's self-determination regulate the relationships in the team, with partners, founders, competitors and other interested parties. They ultimately determine the psychological and economic effectiveness of the organization and activities of a businessman. The process of self-determination of a person in business is non-linear, accompanied by stages of rethinking and redefinition, which are determined by various factors: crises of professional development, burnout of the individual, changes in external conditions, etc. Thus, domestic research has established that a significant part of Russian business representatives have ambivalence and contradictions in moral assessments of the world of business, money, attitudes toward observance of moral norms of business conduct.
In the diagram shown in Fig. 3.4, some of the most significant determinants of self-determination in the business are given. The arrangement of elements and arrows allows us to describe in some generalized form some processes and mechanisms of this self-determination.
The initial element of the process of self-determination of the individual in business are the motives of economic activity. However, this indicator alone does not determine much; much more important is the degree of connection between the motives of economic activity and the basic life values and values. The tightness of the connection between them determines a high or low value -
<img border=0 src="/user/themes/esthemes/images/pageimg/image007.jpg" alt="Determination and dynamics of self-determination of a person in business" (Kupreichenko, 2011) ">
Fig. 3.4. Determination and dynamics of self-determination in business (Kupreychenko, 2011)
the purity of the economic activity of the subject. On the degree of strength and consistency of this connection, it is possible to judge such psychological characteristics as the meanings and moral assessments of economic phenomena - money, property, the world of business, crisis, advertising, etc. The values and meanings of economic phenomena, the world of business and its agents, as well as the motives of economic activity and the basic life orientations of the individual, are influenced by cultural, historical, social and personal determinants.
These determinants also influence the assessment of the current state of internal and external conditions (needs for a certain material welfare, interests and inclinations to certain types of activity, environmental conditions and economic opportunities at this stage of life). Their actual state predetermines the choice of species, forms and intensity of economic activity at different stages of life (formal dynamic characteristics). At the same time, the individual is self-determined in terms of the content of economic activity and how to achieve goals. The methods of economic activity must also include the principles of business conduct and strategies for resolving moral contradictions in business interaction. One of such strategies is differentiated observance of moral standards when interacting with people who are at different psychological distances or occupying different places in the social and psychological space of the person (one's own, another's, significant-insignificant, provocative-distrustful, trusting-not trusting, etc. .) (Kupreychenko, 2011).
Often the assessment of the current state of internal and external conditions counteracts the build-up of economic activity: either the needs for material well-being are met, or the external environment is extremely unfavorable, or the self-esteem of economic competence is low, or at this stage of life any other spheres of life (education, family etc.) are more significant. In this case, there is a process opposite in direction to the previous one - there is a reassessment of economic phenomena and an increase or decrease in the significance of economic activity. For example, assessing the unfavorability of external conditions, coupled with a lack of basic needs and high self-esteem, will increase the value of economic goods and stimulate economic activity (especially when combined with a positive attitude towards risk and competition). At the same time, low self-esteem of economic competence is likely to have a deterrent effect on economic activity and will cause a decline in economic claims and the subjective value of material goods.
Evaluation of the results of the business activities of the subject also makes adjustments both in the choice of types and modes of activity, and in the overall assessment of external conditions, their capabilities and needs, attitude to various economic objects and phenomena, etc.
In the course of empirical studies, we were able to trace the effect of some of these mechanisms, in particular, mechanisms for stimulating and restraining economic activity. The simultaneous counter-flow of certain processes (as shown by the arrows in Figure 3.4) causes additional contradictions in the consciousness of the individual and determines the specific stages of its economic and business self-determination. In the study of E. I. Gorbacheva and A. B. Kupreychenko, a special type of business executives who are at the crisis stage of self-determination is singled out (Kupreychenko, 2011).
This type is most typical for young managers unsatisfied with their material situation with a high level of claims, but with little experience whose high economic activity has not yet brought the expected results. They are characterized by a contradictory and conflicting attitude to economic phenomena, in particular, a moral conflict conflict assessment of money and an intrapersonal moral conflict over compliance with the moral norms of business conduct. So, for these managers money is a concept saturated with meanings and emotions, often negative. The association of the concept of "money" is strongly manifested. with conflict, cynicism, power, information, entertainment, health, means of subsistence. Business for them is a world of competition, partnership, achievement of the goal, a world of great opportunities and at the same time - high risks, a world of self-realization, professional growth and achievement of social status. It can be said that leaders related to this type are young, impudent.
The study also identifies other types of business executives. Mature managers who are eager to increase economic activity and realize the importance of trust and reliability in business demonstrate a high willingness to comply with moral norms, and also positively assess the morality of their partners. For them, the world of business is: life with great interest; hard painstaking work; increase money with the help of their investment; the world with its pluses and minuses, concessions and conquests; a world of strong, intelligent people; an interesting, but also a risky world. In contrast, those business leaders who are preparing to reduce economic activity become less interested in the effectiveness of interaction with business partners and, as their ideas about the observance of moral standards by the ideal manager show, somewhat reduce the bar of ethical business conduct. Their attitude to the business world is business, adequate, without emotions: the world of movement and development of mankind, progress, work, honesty with partners, a place where a person can realize his ambitions, evaluate himself and others around him. Among the representatives of this type are many rich people. Estimates of their other economic status and their own estimates coincide. The high satisfaction with the material well-being of these, apparently slightly burnt out businessmen in combination with other factors leads to a gradual decline in economic activity.
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