The structure of the problem situation
A. M. Matyushkin, who paid much attention to the theory of problem learning in his early works, gave an analysis of the psychological structure of various types of problem situations and proposed his own version of their classification. These ideas formed the basis for the development of the theory of problem learning.
According to him, an essential component of the psychological structure of the problem situation is the cognitive need. It can not be introduced into a problematic situation from the outside with the help of instructions or instructions. Cognitive need arises only as a result of the subject's own activity, in the course of his attempts to perform a new task in known ways.
Specificity of cognitive need is that the object of its satisfaction is an unknown, new knowledge. The discovery of the unknown is for the person as the discovery of a new ("subjectively new" or "objectively new"). Cognitive need, like other needs, causes the activity of the subject, aimed at its satisfaction. The process of satisfying the cognitive need is a cognitive search aimed at achieving the unknown.
Describing the specificity of the cognitive need, AM Matyushkin notes: "Unlike the organic needs reproduced cyclically, the cognitive need does not arise by itself, it arises only in special conditions of the violation of the interaction of the subject and the object, requiring the discovery of new knowledge , the formation of mental neoplasms (new ways of acting, forms of mental regulation, etc.). "
Knowledge of the subject about the conditions, methods and laws of the object of action itself is a specific subject of "satisfaction" arose cognitive need. According to its information characteristics, the unknown is most often estimated only by one parameter - relative novelty. However, unlike some other information processes (solving familiar problems, etc.), the unknown in the problem situation is characterized by one more parameter - the relative degree of its generalization. This second parameter, according to AM Matyushkin, is not a less significant characteristic of the unknown than the degree of its novelty.
Fundamentally important is the remark of AM Matyushkin that in the emergence of a new action, its mental regulation, the problematic situation arises only in a relatively narrow range of cognitive abilities of the subject, including both his creative abilities and the level of development achieved. The cognitive abilities of the subject determine the possible degree of discrepancy between the subjectively known and the unknown, in which a problem situation arises.
Based on this, AM Matyushkin argues that the problematic situation includes three necessary elements:
- cognitive need;
- cognitive abilities of the subject.
In this model, the general characteristic of the problem situation appears to us as a special type of interaction between the subject and the object. It includes both the characterization of the subject, and the characteristic of the object. On the part of the subject, the problem situation is determined by his cognitive abilities and manifests itself as a state of cognitive need. On the object side, the problem situation is characterized by the type of the unknown (& quot; subjectively new & quot; or & quot; objectively new & quot;).
The state of cognitive need is a common element of various types of problem situations. The creative possibilities of the subject, the genetic level of the development of the action and the type of the unknown element of the action constitute the most common specific grounds for the possible classification of problem situations.
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