The technique of speech is understood as a set of pronouncing skills and abilities that provide good audibility, and therefore, the perception of speech, its impact on the feelings and mind of listeners. If the speaker speaks well (voice and speech are sweet), listeners hear it well. If he brightly modulates, "paints with a voice of thought," then it is easily understood. If, however, he expressively intones (using all components of living speech), then listeners feel the speech of the speaker. Possession of the art of pronunciation, modulation and intonation makes the speech of the speaker inspirational. And inspired speech is perceived by listeners as a revelation & quot; . There are people who have by nature a well-placed, strong and melodic voice with a pleasant timbre; there are people who have a good command of their voice, but often it is necessary to work on a voice, and for this there are practical exercises aimed at mastering the technique of speech and improving the speech apparatus. The work on speech technology makes up a necessary part of the actors' performances with stage speech, many exercises and recommendations are used by rhetoric to develop the voice of the speaker, improve the sound, pronunciation, etc.
Mastering the technique of speech involves, first of all, the formulation and development of proper breathing, voice control, its timbre, intonation, the improvement of diction. In ordinary life, a person does not pay attention to breathing, it occurs naturally, physiologically, but during speech, especially if the speech is long and intended for a large audience, the speaker requires additional efforts, since more air is needed, as well as the right amount of air using. A loud, even and strong voice is provided by proper breathing. To the most important tips that help & quot; breathe & quot; correctly, it is possible to carry the following: 1) it is desirable to make a short inhalation of the nose; 2) it is necessary to speak during a prolonged and even exhalation, which should be approximately 10 times longer than inspiration; 3) it is necessary to monitor breathing, avoiding premature inspiration; 4) learn to carry out air intake during a pause;
5) try to breathe in air as quickly and unobtrusively as possible; 6) make sure that the muscles involved in breathing are not strained and clamped.
The voice of the speaker (like any person) is characterized by strength, height and timbre. Voice Strength is an objective physical characteristic of sound as a mechanical vibration of the vocal cords and depends on the amplitude of the oscillation: the larger the amplitude of the vocal cords vibrations, the louder the sound. The height of the voice is determined by the frequency of the oscillation: the higher the oscillation frequency (the number of waves per second), the higher the sound. Voice of the voice , or its sound color, depends on the overtones of the voice and the intensity of each of them. The tone of the voice is strongly influenced by resonators, in humans - it is the cavity of the mouth and nose, larynx, lungs, trachea, bronchi. Of course, people have different voices by nature: sonorous, sonorous, gigantic and quiet, weak, deaf; a voice, like a person, can be strong and hardy or powerless, weak; speak of a chest, guttural, velvety voice and a sharp, creaking or colorless voice, so representatives of many professions, whose activities are connected with public speaking, need to train and develop their voice. To make your voice stronger, you need to engage in reciting (reading) texts of speeches, poems, as well as loud singing. These exercises strengthen the vocal cords, make them more hardy and flexible. The development of the voice range, the ability to speak at the lowest or highest tones, and also switch in the process of speech from high frequency to low (and back) promotes the mobility and expressiveness of speech, helps convey a variety of shades of thought and feeling. The simplest tips for expanding the range of voice are reduced to daily artistic reading out loud, singing at the highest possible low or high tones. In addition, professional exercises for actors and vocalists are used, for example the following.
& quot; Extending the range to the low notes
• Learn to breathe in and out through your nose, according to experts, this technique will a priori allow you to lower your voice.
• Buzz: standing or sitting, you need to lower your head, get your chin to the chest and start buzzing on the rising.
• Try to "work" the bell: at the lowest possible sweat, by typing air into the lungs, start slowly and expansively say "bombs" on expiration.
Extend the range to high notes
• Similarly to a low bell, you can simulate the sound of high bells, singing "bomb-bim-bomb" on the highest possible note
• There is an exercise that you can call a "ladder": any of the quatrains must be pronounced one line at a time, each next higher than the previous one.
• The same exercise, but with a return to the original pitch of the sounds, also allows you to extend the range. For example, choose a verse from two quatrains, at the end of the first one reach the maximum height and start moving downwards & quot; .
An important meaning for a speaker is diction , i.e. clear and clear utterance of sounds, their correct articulation: "... everyone must have an excellent diction, pronunciation ... should feel not only phrases, words, but every syllable, every letter ... If a person does not feel the soul of the letter, he will not feel the soul of the word, will not feel the soul of the phrase, the thought & quot; , Wrote Stanislavsky. Public speech requires & quot; complete & quot; style of pronunciation, so all sounds, especially consonants, should sound distinctly, clearly, without disappearing in the sonority of the delivered voice.
The best training diction is known to all from childhood patter, for example:
The beavers are bred in cheese burs. Beavers are brave , and for the beavers are kind, Forgot Pankrat Kondratov jack. Now Pankratu without a jack can not pick up a tractor on the tract, "Magus Magus wolves into the stable with magi.
The tongue twisters, as a rule, contain words with hardly soundable sounds or sound combinations. Sometimes people think that tongue twisters should be spoken quickly without thinking about the meaning of what they say, however, professionals advise first of all to understand the content of the patter, and then to say it at a slow pace, carefully articulating all the sounds. Later, the pace can be accelerated, as well as practicing the correct pronunciation in two or three tempos: slow, faster, very fast. In addition to tongue twisters, articulatory gymnastics will be useful, i.e. exercises aimed at training the lower jaw, lips and tongue, and a technique known since the time of Demosthenes, when the philosopher, in order to get rid of tongue-tied and lisp, took small stones in his mouth, trying to pronounce long phrases and whole sentences without inhaling.
Simultaneously with the reclamation it is possible to work on tonality (voice height) and intonation, raise or lower the voice or pronounce phrases with different intonations. In linguistics, intonation is considered as a rhythm-melodic characteristic of a word, phrase or utterance, in the realization of which melody, intensity, duration, tempo and timbre of speech are involved. With the help of intonation, the speech stream divides into semantic units, unites them into one semantic whole, and also expresses the communicative purpose of the utterance: interrogative, motivational, narrative, etc. The Russian intonation of the narrative sentence has an ascending-descending pattern, so it is recommended to start speaking in an average tone so that it is possible to raise the voice if necessary in the case of a long sentence and to lower the tone at the end.
Remember that after a shock word at the beginning of a sentence, the volume of the voice usually falls, so the end of the sentence is perceived worse. We need exercises to preserve the smooth sound of the voice throughout the whole sentence. In rhetoric, much attention is paid to intonation as a spokesperson for feelings and emotions. Scientists distinguish more than 20 different types of intonations, transmitting various shades of thought and feelings: for example, intonation is strange, contemptuous, imperious, abrupt, smooth, lively, confidential, ironic, condescending, pleading, pleading, angry, false, etc. According to experts, about 40% of information is perceived rather badly if the intonation does not correspond to the content of the speech.
It is very important to correctly place logical (semantic) stress in the performance process, ie, highlight the force of sound, change in voice height, pause or tempo the most important word in the phrase and sentence. The sentence, as a rule, can not be pronounced in one breath, therefore it is divided into separate semantic blocks, called syntagms (or phrases). Syntagms, representing a phonetic whole, are pronounced with a certain intonation and have a semantic (logical) center - a word to which the logical stress falls. KS Stanislavsky called the logical stress the index finger, which focuses listeners' attention on the most essential and important word of the phrase. A logical stress is determined by the communicative intention of the speaker, his desire to emphasize certain thoughts or pay attention to them. Syntagms are separated by pauses from each other. Proper pausing of speech is just as important as right intonation and logical stress. Excessive fascination with pauses, the desire to make speech more significant interfere with an adequate understanding of the meaning of the spoken word, and the absence of pauses makes speech perception more difficult. According to H. Lemmerman's just remark, "a single pause, one paltry accent can make speech convincing or destroy" . The most effective exercises for the development of skills to correctly intonate, make grooves, place logical stresses include classes in the expressive reading of artistic prose texts, poems, dramaturgy, and journalism.
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