Temperament in the mental structure of the personality
The general concept of the temperament and the system of its manifestations
Among the many psychological characteristics that characterize a person, the temperament category is one of the most famous and common. The division of people according to the types of temperament is, apparently, one of the oldest.
Almost everyone who has received a school education knows, for example, that according to Hippocrates (IV century BC), people are choleric, melancholic, sanguine and phlegmatic. As a rule, such decisive gradations of surrounding people are established by the individual very quickly, almost to the first impression and are subjectively convincing, fairly stable for him. In fact, the notion of temperament, and even more so, of its typology is not at all simple, ambiguous, largely controversial content.
In the real psyche and personality, temperament exists, of course, in unity with other indicators of the mental image, primarily with the character. However, in domestic psychology, these concepts are completely justifiably distinguished, even if only to go deeper to understand their actual, vital unity and interaction. Even with regard to dogs in the famous physiological school IP Pavlov bred, for example, similar in terms of the relationship of the concept: the genotype and phenotype.
Temperament - a system of indicators that characterize the dynamic characteristics of the psyche and the behavior of the individual.
This definition contains, in essence, only two informative words: & quot; system & quot; and & quot; dynamic & quot ;, highlighting the temperament from the construction of other conditional constituents of the psychological structure of the personality. Temperament describes dynamic, but not meaningful, not productive aspects of the human psyche and behavior. Dynamics is the tempo, speed, rhythm, strength, sharpness, amplitude and a number of other signs of movement, depending on its subject specificity. Temperament (by definition) is fundamentally different from character , describing the meaningful, qualitative aspects of the expression of a person's relationship to the world.
Regarding the system of indicators, characterizing the manifestation (or properties) of temperament, there are different points of view, and the number of indicators varies significantly among different authors. For any scientific model, the main thing is that it is a relatively complete and complete system, and not a random set of arbitrary parameters.
Q. D. Nebylitsyn, for example, proposed to allocate the following components of temperament , which are both systemically related and relatively independent, i.e. can exist in temperament in various combinations:
1. General psychic activity as a degree of the individual's mood for action, for any activity. It is the readiness to realize the tendency existing in the person to activity, to influence on the world and on oneself; measure of intrinsic & quot; predisposition & quot; man to self-expression and self-realization in other people and in behavior, in activities. Individual differences in this temperament feature range from an unrestrained, constant thirst for all kinds of activity to behavioral lethargy, inaction, inertia and passive contemplation.
Temperamental psychic activity characterizes only the dynamics of activity, but not its selectivity, direction, not ultimate effectiveness. If a person, for example, is extremely active in his professional activity, but defiantly passive in the family, then this should be considered not as a manifestation of temperament, but as a projection of the specific features of his personality and character.
2. Dynamic parameters of all kinds of movements and actions, ie. any physical motor skills, including speech. This refers to the movements of the body (pantomime), the movements of the muscles of the face (mimicry), to speech motor skills. So, in one person, the movements of the hands, for example, are sharp, underlined, high-amplitude, and in the other - soft and smooth. One speaks slowly, languidly, thoughtfully, and the other uncontrollably and loudly "scribbles" fast words. However, in the real communication of people & quot; work & quot; not only (and not so much) dynamic features of the psyche, as content, quality. Actually live, manifest and interact not temperaments, but whole personalities.
3. Dynamic features of emotionality - this is another complex manifestation of temperament. VD Nebylitsyn distinguished three logically related, relatively independent and objectively necessary indicators of the dynamics of emotionality:
a) impressionability as an indicator of the speed of the occurrence of emotion, a measure of a person's sensitivity to the occurrence of an experience, "threshold" the magnitude of the external impact necessary for the emergence of an emotional relationship to what is happening. Suppose there was the same event (the "five" in the exam), but one schoolboy is calm, behaviorally restrained, while his classmate smiles mirthfully and "jumps";
b) impulsiveness as an expression of the speed of development of emotion from the moment of emergence to its outward manifestation, an indicator of the speed of expression of experience. It is possible that the experience that has arisen immediately and vividly manifests itself objectively, but the relative time delay "& resp. emotional reaction;
c) lability, which means the rate of the termination of an emotion or its transformation into another, opposite in sign. For example, the high degree of development of this property of temperament is clearly illustrated by classical pictures of Italian cinema. It's another matter - & quot; coldness & quot; Scandinavian residents or long-term "sinking" an individual in hopeless sadness, or, on the contrary, unrestrained joy.
In modern domestic psychology there is a scheme that somehow continues the traditions of BM Teplov's school - VD Nebylitsyn. This model of temperamental personality traits, developed by VM Rusalov. To distinguish people from temperamental properties, the author offers a validated test that measures the eight properties of temperament: ergity, plasticity, tempo and emotionality, each of which has two indicators - applied to the objective and social activities.
In the mass practice of diagnosis, the most common are other models that are simplified in terms of differential psychology. This, for example, is the personal questionnaire (EPI) by G. Yu. Eysenck, not fully justified into a temperament type test. Here two parameters are distinguished: extraversion - introversion and the indicator of neuroticism. In a more complete version of the test, the parameter of psychotism is added.
Widely known is the scheme of VS Merlin, in which temperament is described by the following properties: sensitivity, reactivity, activity, ratio of reactivity and activity, reactions, plasticity and stiffness, extravertedness and introvertedness. Later, the author added to the scheme and such properties as excitability of attention, the power of emotions, emotional excitability, activity of volitional activity, subjectivation. In these properties it is obvious, however, a way out of the & quot; dynamic & quot; interpretation of temperament.
There are other models of the presentation of temperament parameters, which are usually reduced to four "classical" types of temperament . The complexity of the description of these types is due to the inconsistency, insufficient conceptual clarity and systematization of the psychological criteria for their isolation, therefore, the portraits given by different authors are significantly different. The division of people according to the types of temperaments is in many respects problematic, although it is sometimes useful for the most preliminary distinctions.
Briefly list the tentative, as it were universally recognized, features of the four "classic" temperaments, although from the point of view of differential psychology behind this there are not sufficient scientific grounds. In the above descriptions, the terminological mixing of the dynamic and qualitative properties of the personality is also noticeable.
Sanguine are distinguished by high mental activity, the intensity of motor activity and the dynamic properties of emotionality, which is why the experiences of it are shallow, easily replaced. There is a certain haste, superficiality, directivity mainly outward.
Choleric is also characterized by high energy, rapidity, sharpness and severity of emotions that are not balanced enough, not plastic.
Phlegmatic are characterized by low activity behavior, difficulty in switching, sluggishness, calm motor and experience, stiffness.
Melancholic is characterized by low activity of behavior, restraint of physical and speech motor skills, depth of experience and closeness, predominant orientation inward.
Specific manifestations of any of the described types of temperament can be deeply individual, because the personality psyche exists and functions as something continuous and complete. The real behavior of a person is multidimensional and determined by a variety of factors: external and internal, physiological and physical, psychological and social.
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