Time of breaks in the work of the performer is divided into time of regulated and unregulated breaks, i.e. dependent and independent of the employee.
The time of regulated breaks includes breaks due to technology and the organization of the production process, and the time for rest and personal needs.
Time of technological breaks - the time of automatic processing of the workpiece at the machine operator, the time of melting at the cutter, the time of cooling the workpiece in the smithy to transfer it to another operation.
Time for rest and personal needs is provided to workers for rest, industrial gymnastics during the shift, as well as time for personal hygiene and other personal needs.
The time of unregulated breaks in work includes breaks caused by production or technical or other kinds of malfunctions in the organization of production (delay in supply of workplace materials, tools, waiting for work, lack of energy, repair etc.), and breaks made to the workers caused by violation of labor discipline (late work, leaving for dinner before the call and late from the lunch, premature departure from work, extraneous conversations and unauthorized absence from the workplace).
Technically justified time norm
The technically justified norm of the time of generation, maintenance and numbers are those that, in the conditions of the given enterprise, are designed for the most efficient use of equipment and time, as well as the most rational technology of work, the organization and maintenance of workplaces, the application of advanced labor methods with mandatory observance of requirements physiology, ensuring the preservation of health and efficiency of workers.
The composition of the technically justified norm is shown in Fig. 4.5.
Fig. 4.5. Structure of a technically justified time norm
The technically justified time norm is calculated using the formula
where T o - the main time; T in - auxiliary time; T those - time for the maintenance of the workplace; T org - the time of organizational maintenance of the workplace; T от.л - time for rest and personal needs; T pt is a break
you, due to technology and the organization of production; - preparatory-final time.
The technically justified time norms include only those time-consuming categories that are necessary to perform a given job.
Technically justified time norms are calculated:
• according to the current uniform or standard norms;
• on the basis of comparison with the previously approved technically justified standards for similar work;
• On the basis of data on equipment performance, studying the costs of working hours (timing, work time, oscillography, filming, etc.) and critical analysis of the existing organization of production and labor.
All work time costs (except preparatory final) are determined by the unit of work (unit or unit) accepted for calculation, and are called unit time norm:
where - real time, ; - time of workplace maintenance,
Standard time consists of two main parts: a piece and setup times:
For manual and machine-manual works, where the time for servicing the workplace and rest and personal needs is normalized as a percentage of the operational time, the piece-time formula takes the following form:
where To is the time factor for servicing the workplace, rest and personal needs,% of the operational time.
Depending on the type of production , the time norm is calculated differently:
• in a single production ;
• in mass production , wherein n is the number of items in the lot (task);
• In mass production
Generation rate is, as it were, the reciprocal of the time norm:
where - the duration of the shift in minutes.
There is an inverse relationship between the time norm and the rate of production. With a decrease in the norm of time, the rate of production increases. These values do not change in equal measure: the rate of production increases more than the rate of time decreases.
If the time norm is reduced by a certain percentage, the rate of production will increase by a slightly higher percentage:
where g - the percentage of increase in the output rate; x is the percentage of the decline in time.
With a 25% reduction in the time norm, the production rate will increase by
The technically based time (output) is calculated on the basis of data on equipment performance, the analysis of working time and experience of advanced work organization and can not be increased due to any deviations from the normal conditions of the technological process. Technically justified norms of time (development) are replaced by new ones as technical, economic and organizational measures are introduced to ensure production growth.
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