Goods transported under temperature control - Management of transport systems. Logistics logistics

Goods transported under temperature control

Loads transported under temperature controlled cargo during transport, transshipment and storage require maintenance of a certain temperature regime, humidity and compliance with specific sanitary and hygienic requirements. The traditional domestic name for this class is perishable cargo.

The range of goods transported under temperature control (GPTK), as well as the temperature range in which they are delivered, are very wide. The GPTK includes many food products, flowers and other plants, as well as a large amount of pharmaceutical and chemical-biological products. Sometimes computers and components for them, batteries, leather and other goods are transported under temperature control.

The optimal mode of transportation in each case is determined not only by the properties of the goods transported, but also by the time of the year, the duration of transportation, the climatic conditions of the departure and destination points, and other factors. Some of the most common temperature regimes for the delivery of HPTK are shown in Table. 4.1.

Table 4.1. The most common temperature regimes for the delivery of GPTK

Temperature range

The main types of goods transported

-25 to -30 ° C (deep frozen foods)

Frozen seafood, ice cream

-16 to -20 ° C (frozen foods)

Frozen meat

From +2 to + 4 ° C (chilled products)

Vegetables, fruits, fresh meat, sausages, yeast

+2 to + 8 ° C

Vegetables, fruits, flowers, biopharmaceutical products, oranges, pineapples

From + 12 to + 14 ° C

Bananas

The most important concept related to the transportation of GPTC is the so-called cold chain. The cold chain is a constantly operating organizational and technological system that ensures the maintenance of the necessary temperature regime along the entire route of the GPTK from the producer to the end user (Figure 4.3).

The cold chain begins with the production of the corresponding products by placing them in the necessary thermal regime and ends, in many cases, almost at the point of final consumption of the goods.

Changing the temperature of the transported goods in cold cost (conditional example):

Fig. 4.3. Change in the temperature of the transported goods in cold prices (conditional example):

1 - transportation from the place of production; 2 - reloading to the warehouse; 3 - storage in a specialized warehouse; 4 - loading into a vehicle; 5 - delivery to the end user; 6 - permissible temperature range; 7 - increase in cargo temperature during overload, risk of breaking the cold chain; 8 - undercooling of cargo in the warehouse, risk of breaking the cold chain

Violations of the cold chain reduce the quality of GPTK, but the degree of such reduction depends on the duration of the disturbances and the intensity of the resulting heat exposure. Many medicines in case of violation of the temperature regime during delivery retain the quality required for application, however, the shelf life is reduced with respect to the warranty. This also applies to foodstuffs for which the possible term of their implementation is reduced for violations of the cold chain.

Along with compliance with the temperature regime, many GPTK require air exchange (ventilation of the cargo space) and control of the humidity of the environment. For example, fruits and vegetables during transport & quot; breathe & quot ;, highlighting water vapor and gases that must be diverted to ensure the safety of the cargo. Therefore, an important condition for ensuring safety is the correct stowage of cargo in the vehicle, taking into account the necessary air circulation regime. When transporting refrigerated products, fruits and vegetables, air must pass through the entire mass of the cargo to remove heat and gases. For this, when laying cargo between rows of boxes or pallets, gaps are left. When transporting frozen cargo, the air must circulate, flowing around the solid block of cargo around the periphery, but not penetrating the interior where the cold should be stored.

In the conditions of globalization of world trade and increase of transportation distances, the delivery of GPTK has turned into an independent technologically complex type of transport business, and qualified transport operators play one of the main roles in the supply system of GPTK, controlling the cold chain practically throughout its entire length. Their competitiveness is determined by the following factors:

1) a detailed knowledge of the properties of the goods transported, the physical and chemical processes occurring during the transportation and storage of various GPTK, as well as the packaging and packaging features in which GPTK is presented for transportation. The nomenclature of GPTK is huge, while new products, medicines and biological preparations with their own specific properties are constantly appearing on the market. Transport operators specializing in working with GPTK must be aware of these properties in order to meet the new transport needs that arise. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the restrictions on joint transportation of various types of GPTK;

2) the use of equipment that meets the requirements of specific GPTC and planned for their delivery of the cold chain regime. In Table. 4.2 the general characteristics of vehicles and containers used for transportation of GPTK are given. In addition to the application of various temperature maintenance systems, transport equipment can be equipped with ventilation systems, maintaining the necessary humidity and composition of the air environment. There are multisectional automobile bodies and wagons intended for simultaneous transportation of GPTK, requiring different temperature modes;

Table 4.2. The main types of vehicles for transportation of GPTK

Type

Feature

Isothermal

Vehicles or containers without devices for producing cold or heat, but equipped with heat-insulating walls, floors, doors and roofs of cargo spaces to slow heat exchange. Some designs allow the supply of cooled air from outside - for example, isothermal containers connected to a refrigerator unit on a ship or at a specialized terminal

Glaciers

Vehicles or containers that have thermal insulation and are equipped with a nonmechanical source of cold in the form of a stock of natural or dry ice, liquefied gas, and so-called. Glaciers are highly reliable, since they do not have moving parts

Refrigerators

Vehicles or containers that have thermal insulation and are equipped with self-contained compressor or absorption plants for cooling. Refrigerators can have their own diesel-electric power unit or be provided with external power supply

3) ensuring constant monitoring of the temperature regime. The carrier must be ready to provide the end user with reliable documented information in real time about the compliance with the temperature conditions during transportation. The temperature at different points in the cargo volume of the vehicle is not the same, due to the peculiarities of air circulation, uneven external heating, the opening of doors of cars, containers and car bodies even for a short time. Therefore, it is important to choose a temperature monitoring technology that is adequate to the properties of the cargo and transportation conditions - from the simplest indicators of temperature violation to the systems of constant satellite tracking;

4) ensuring high speed and punctual delivery. GPTK is a product with a short life cycle, which is sometimes comparable with the time of transportation. So, the shelf life of bananas is 10-25 days, cabbage - 14-20 days, tomatoes - 7-14 days, strawberries - 5-10 days. Therefore, high speed of delivery, especially when it comes to intercontinental communication, is claimed and paid for by the consumer, and delays can cause him considerable damage;

5) the availability of qualified personnel who are trained not only in the implementation of standard technological processes, but also in actions in extraordinary situations, for example, for unforeseen transport delays, for refrigeration equipment failures, for changing the delivery route, etc.

6) readiness to develop and implement an individual cold chain project that best meets the interests of a particular consumer.

There are two main trends for the world transport market of GPTK:

- the ubiquitous transition to the use of refrigerated containers (refcontainers) with a reduction in the share of long-distance transport of GPTK by sea refrigerators and railroad refrigerated wagons. The number of refrigerated warehouses at sea and inland terminals is also decreasing, and container terminals are equipped with special equipment for power supply of refcontainers and their maintenance. Due to this trend, the delivery logistics of GPTK is complemented by all the advantages inherent in the world container system (see paragraph 10.3);

- providing transport operators with a set of logistics services throughout the cold chain while reducing the share of "simple transportation" services, which were saved almost exclusively by road transport while carrying out GPTK's local delivery.

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