As a result of the development of this section, the student must:
• the definition of the information system, information product, information and computing work and information and computing services;
• the main levels of management of corporate (integrated) information systems;
• classification of organizational and administrative documents;
• the purpose, structure and basic functions of spreadsheets;
• graphic editors, ways of representing and storing graphic information, graphic file formats;
• modern information technologies that make up the IT structure of a modern high-tech enterprise;
• modules of the decision support system;
be able to
• describe the basic information flows circulating in the economic system;
• classification, composition and purpose of the computer software;
• the purpose and basic functions of word processors, methods for entering, editing and formatting text;
• Use graphic editors, perform operations with graphic objects;
• to implement the formulation of specific decision-making tasks
• the main approaches to the design of automated information systems;
• Data visualization skills;
• methods of developing and building database schemas;
• skills in the analytical substantiation of decision options using decision support systems.
AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The role and place of ACS in the economy
Information system (IS) - an organizational and technical system designed to perform "information computing work" or provision of "information and computing services" that meet the needs of the management system and its users - management personnel, external users (investors, suppliers, buyers) by using and/or creating "information products". Information systems exist within the management system and are completely subordinated to the objectives of the functioning of these control systems.
information product is understood to be the tangible or intangible result of intellectual human labor, usually materialized on a certain medium in the form of various software products (applications), output information in the form of management documents, databases, data warehouses, knowledge bases, IP and IT projects.
Information and Computing - activities related to the use of information products. A typical representative of information work is the support of information management technologies.
Information and computing services - one-time information-computational work.
The methodological basis for the study of IP is a systematic approach, according to which any system is a set of interrelated objects (elements) that work together to achieve a common goal.
A goal-setting system is characterized by a change in state as a result of the interaction of its elements in various processes and with the external environment.
With this behavior of the system, it is important to observe the following principles:
emergence is the integrity of the system based on a common structure,
homeostasis - the stable functioning of the system when a common goal is achieved;
adaptability is the speed at which you adapt to changes in the environment;
manageability - the depth of change in the behavior of system elements;self-organization - the ability to change the structure of the system in accordance with changing system goals.
From the positions of cybernetics, the structure of any economic system can be represented in Fig. 8.1 subject and control object, where the main information flows between the external environment, the object and the subject of management are marked with the i -1, i /i> -2, i -3, i -4 and are supported by the information system (IS).
Fig. 8.1. The structure of the economic system
The control object is a subsystem of material elements of economic activity (raw materials and materials, equipment, finished products, workers, etc.) and economic processes (main and auxiliary production, supply, marketing, etc.).
The management entity is a set of interacting structural units of the economic system (management, financial, production, supply, sales and other departments) performing the following management functions:
• Planning - a function that determines the purpose of the functioning of the economic system for different periods of time (strategic, tactical and operational planning);
• Accounting - a function that displays the state of the management object as a result of running business processes;
• control - a function that determines the deviation of credentials from planned targets and standards;
• regulation is a function that performs operational management of all business processes in order to avoid any deviations between planned and accounting data
• Analysis is a function that captures trends in the performance of the economic system and reserves that are taken into account when planning for the next time period.
IP is a collection of functional structure, as well as information, mathematical, technical, organizational and personnel support, which are integrated into a single system for the purpose of collecting, storing, processing and issuing the necessary information for the management functions.
The IS provides information management system, forming the following information flows (see figure 8.1):
• i -1 - the information flow from the external environment to the management system, which, on the one hand, represents the flow of normative information created by state institutions in terms of legislation, and on the other hand, the flow of information about the market situation created by competitors, consumers, suppliers;
• i -2 - information flow from the management system to the external environment (reporting information, first of all financial information to state bodies, investors, creditors, consumers; potential customers);
• i -3 - information flow from the control system to the control object, representing a set of planned, regulatory and administrative information for the implementation of business processes;
• i -4 - information note from the control object to the control system, which reflects the accounting information about the state of the management object of the economic system (raw materials, materials, labor resources, finished products and services) as a result of the implementation of economic processes.
IP accumulates and processes incoming accounting information and existing standards and plans into analytical information that serves as a basis for forecasting the development of the economic system, adjusting its goals and creating plans for a new cycle of reproduction.
The following requirements are imposed on information flows circulating in the IS:
• completeness and sufficiency of information for the implementation of management functions;
• timeliness of providing information;
• providing the necessary degree of information reliability depending on the level of management;
• Efficiency of information processing (adequate data processing costs);
• adaptability to the changing information needs of users.
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