Current state of information technologies and their role in management
The main features of modern information technology
There is no single scientific definition of information technology (IT). According to the definition of UNESCO, information technology is a complex of interconnected scientific, technological, engineering disciplines that study methods of efficient organization of labor of people engaged in processing and storing information; computer techniques and methods of organization and interaction with people and production equipment, their practical applications, as well as related social, economic and cultural problems. " Boles narrowly understand information technology as a combination of ways to collect, store, transmit, process and output information that are combined into a single process to solve specific tasks or meet specific needs, using materials and technical means specific to this level of development of spiders and technology./p>
Since information processes accompany any human activity in any historical periods of time, it must be recognized that information technologies are inherently inherent in the labor process both in the field of production and in the organizational and managerial sphere, that is, in management. Moreover, and this is especially noticeable in practice in medium and large companies, information technologies, having separated into independent organizational processes (business processes), now need to be managed by themselves. A new term "information management" has appeared and is widely used.
Everywhere - in business, public administration, socio-economic sphere, whatever level of management is not taken - everywhere there are information processes, and, hence, certain information technologies are implemented everywhere. With a certain lag, they are always harmonized with the current level of development of science and technology.Considering the issue at a sufficiently high level of abstraction, it can be noted that the most notable changes that have occurred in recent years in information technologies are expressed in the fact that they began to cope with much larger volumes of information faster, while providing consumers with more opportunities to manipulate data. It became possible to store virtually unlimited (in the framework of business practice) volumes of information, transmit them at a speed exceeding the speed of human data perception, to search for the necessary information in such short periods of time that it seems subjectively instantaneous, to issue information in any form in which a person is capable of perceiving and analyzing them. Quantitative changes in information technologies ultimately lead to a change in the established labor processes of information workers, including in management, as well as business processes in enterprises and organizations. All this leads to what analysts predict: "In the next 10 years, the global business climate will change so much that the business that is habitual for us will cease to exist."
The main information technologies that are used in management are office and communication technologies, which today are no longer auxiliary processes, but constitute an integral part of the management process itself. It is difficult to imagine a manager who does not prepare electronic documents, does not send them by e-mail, does not conduct calculations in spreadsheets, does not communicate with & quot; skype & quot; or through messengers with colleagues and partners, does not go to social networks, does not send or receive SMS, does not work with mobile devices at work, on the road and at home.
Currently, the most urgent task is not the elimination of computer illiteracy (it is basically solved), but the ability to learn and re-learn in the process of working, mastering the new opportunities offered by progress. The information technology industry constantly reminds about this, offering more and more technical means and improved characteristics of existing equipment, as well as advanced software. The latter is especially important, since the software product, unlike machines and equipment, does not wear out physically, and theoretically it can serve for an infinitely long time, but it predetermines the interfaces of personnel interaction with equipment. Partly for this reason, we see a continuous change of versions, releases, interfaces of seemingly perfected universal office programs that satisfy all the reasonable needs of a modern manager. Permanent changes lead to the fact that the need for continuous and rapid updating of knowledge becomes a characteristic feature of the information society, and it must be taken into account when organizing labor. Today, it is important not only how much the manager mastered the existing information technologies, but how much he is able to perceive the new, learn and retrain.
Natural demographic processes mitigate the problem. New generations of professionals who come to management know the information technologies much better and have much higher skills in using them than older generations who mastered information and communication technologies (ICT) on their own or passed retraining. Young people, starting their professional activities, already owns a word processor, a means of constructing presentations, is able to perform electronic calculations independently. Even better, the new generation owns the means of communication - cell phones, smartphones or tablets, i.e. mobile devices, which you can not use to train, as well as computer networks and new means of communication in them. Here, knowledge is spread horizontally between the participants in the interaction.
With the office software the situation is different: here you need training and retraining. However, social networks and mobile devices have shown that simplifying interfaces is possible and that manufacturers should not ignore consumer needs. The trend is that application software must also have such functionality and interface that minimal effort is required to master it.
How to ...
We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)