3.5. Official and business style
Of all the styles of literary language, the official-business style is the most conservative and closed. He is fundamentally impenetrable for speaking. Elements of the business style in colloquial speech, although possible, are a gross violation of its intra-style norms and are completely contra-indicated from the point of view of a culture of speech. Strict style patterns of the official-business style are due to the fact that it serves business relations between people, institutions, countries, between citizens and the state, i.e. administrative and legal area of social life.
In this style, there are such substructures as legislative ("laws language"), diplomatic ("diplomacy language"), clerical (<"chancellerery language") . The main genre varieties are various business documents (autobiography, application, petition), decrees, laws, decrees, notes, credentials, etc.
The birth of Russian official-business speech begins in the X century. and is associated with the design of contracts between Kievan Rus and Byzantium. Its importance, this style, serving the institutional sphere of activity, has not lost even today. It has its own specifics and occupies an important place in the system of literary language styles.
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The main features of the business style are:
1) high regulation of speech, i.e. the standard layout of the material in a certain logical sequence;
2) officiality (strictness of presentation, words are usually used in their direct values, imagery, as a rule, is absent);
3) impersonality, impassivity of exposition;
4) imperativeness (prescriptive-obligatory character of speech);
5) accuracy, not allowing for discrepancies, and logical.
In the official business style, certain standards for drafting business documents have been worked out, which contribute to strict regulation of this important sphere of social life. With unified documents it's easier to work, especially in our computerized age, it's easier to process and store business information. Standards, ready-made forms of business communication (often printed in forms) make it easier for ordinary people, because they do not need to re-create the necessary papers each time, but only need to fill in certain columns of already printed documents.
Within the official-business style, there are many genre varieties, each of which is built according to certain rules, with the same set of accepted for a particular genre of requisites, i.e. content elements of the text of the document. In general, genre varieties of the official-business style are united by a typical set of language tools traditionally used for the transmission of business information.
Consider the main language features of the formal business style.
Basic lexical features of the official-business style:
- professional terms (for example, in diplomacy - note, attache, ambassador);
- words with an official-business coloring ( on the basis, in order, in relation, in occasion of);
- the use of words in a direct nominative value;
- an abundance of complex words, nomenclatural names;
- Absence of lexicon with emotionally expressive marking.
Phraseology is also very unique: it's speech cliches, turns, stamps, necessary to save speech effort. So, fines only are imposed, reprimands are declared, an oath is given , etc.
From morphological features, one should note the widespread use of verbal nouns in -en and in general the predominance of a name over a verb ( establishment, decree, acquisition).
The official form of the business style is the odious pretext ( during, in continuation, in connection with, in force, about ...).
In the business style, it is customary to avoid personal pronouns: Please reload the estimate.
Typical are also split predicates , i.e. using instead of the verb a combination of a broad-range verb and a noun that denotes an action: (shop) produces trade = trades.
The syntax of the official-business style is distinguished by the completeness of the grammatical design of the designs. These are complicated syntactic constructions, with a clear logical and grammatical structure, as a rule, with a ramified subordinate connection, with participial and adverbial movements, with introductory words and plug-in constructions.
This style is inherent in such undesirable features beyond its framework, as genitals chains , i.e. ( The chair expresses satisfaction with your decision to continue studying the stylistic features of the language of modern media), or the accumulation of cases ( Development of problems of further implementation of the program to improve the lives of citizens).
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However, we emphasize that these stylistic norms only within the formal-business style, outside of it - is a stylistic error, which, after KI Chukovsky, received the name office , i.e. & quot; wool tongue & quot ;, & quot; office language & quot ;; a painful aspiration, thoughtlessly, inappropriately and at the same time intentionally (for giving importance) to insert into his speech chancellarisms (special words, phrases, clichés, cliches formed in bureaucratic, bureaucratic language when compiling official documents). Nora Gal, an outstanding translator, in her articles urges readers: "I want to sound again and again, to shout, cry, plead, persuade: beware of the chancellery ! This is the most common, most malignant disease of our speech. Once a rare connoisseur of the Russian language and the wizard of the word Kornei Ivanovich Chukovsky branded it with an exact, murderous name. His article was called "Chancellery", and it sounded really like SOS. I dare not say that it was a voice crying in the desert: fortunately, there are knights who, sparing no effort, fight for the honor of the Word. But, alas, we must face the truth: the clerk does not give up, he comes, widens. This is the accursed and malignant affliction of our speech. Foreign, destructive cells are rapidly growing - hateful cliches that carry neither thought nor feelings, nor a penny of information, but only clog and depress a living, useful kernel. "
The most contraindicated and alien elements of formal business style in the style of conversational. If the scientific style, penetrating into colloquial speech, serving the domestic sphere of communication, only enriches it, then the office impoverishes and adversely affects consciousness. A person gets used to talking with cliches and starts to think them. If the clichédness, standardization inherent in the official business style, simplifies our communication in official situations and saves our thought and speech efforts, then in the use of oral communication, the use of clerical chisels emasculates the meaning of the statements, their emotionality and can lead to communicative failures, since the interlocutor counts on sincere , informal communication.
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