15.4. To the issue of & quot; efficiency & quot; state civil service
In carrying out the management of society, the state and its civil service, naturally, should be concerned about the effectiveness or effectiveness of their activities. There are a lot of considerations on this problem. At the same time, many authors substitute the subject of research, because instead of the effectiveness of the state civil service, consider the effectiveness of the whole "public management", "emergent efficiency", "human development index" (HDI), & quot; Critical-Critical Development Indicators & quot; (BCPR), "effective leadership" and the like.
So, often the concept of "efficiency of civil service" is replaced by the concept of "efficiency of public administration," which, according to the authors, breaks up into two components - technical and economic efficiency. At the same time: "Technical efficiency of public administration is determined by the degree of achievement of the objectives of the activity taking into account" public purposes ". Economic efficiency ... is defined as the ratio of the value of the volume of services rendered to the value of the volume of resources attracted for this & quot ;. It is quite obvious that in this case it is not possible to determine either technical or economic efficiency, practically, and even more so, by mathematical means.
The effectiveness of the state civil service is realized only on the basis of two tasks. First, the reasonableness of the managerial decision and the productive organizational activity of the state body on the "implementation of the planned". And secondly, the professional training of heads of state bodies (representatives of the employer) and civil servants.
Indeed, the reasonableness of the managerial decision largely determines the positive end result and the effectiveness of the tasks of the entire management process. It can be noted that the definition of the effectiveness of managerial decisions is particularly important in modern conditions. It is the effectiveness that is most favorably reflected in the level and quality of all stages of the process of developing, adopting and implementing decisions.
It should be noted that there is a lot of confusion in the scientific literature on governance issues due to the lack of well-established concepts and clearly articulated criteria on which one or another managerial decision could be evaluated. The most commonly used terms are "efficiency", "rationality", "optimality", sometimes "quality" and & quot; performance & quot; (as a set of positive results). A thorough analysis of these concepts shows that all attempts to dissolve them by content do not have any real basis, since they are all synonymous in the final analysis.
What kind of management solution can be considered effective? Different authors suggest different formulations of the answers to this question, but in the main and mostly these formulations coincide. Here are two of them, the most successful in our opinion. According to MP Lebedev, & quot; ... such a solution can be considered effective ... the result of which approaches the target goal with the minimum costs (resources, time, energy, and/strong> , etc.) & quot; At the same time, the author explains that in the correlation between the result and the goal he does not mean any consequences (effects) of the implementation of the solution, but only positive ones that approximate the intended goal. Depending on this, we can talk about the varying degrees of effectiveness of the solution (high, low). But you can not consider an effective solution with a negative outcome.
Another definition of the effectiveness of management decisions belongs to a group of modern American authors. GL Simon, DW Smithburg and VL Thompson believe that this efficiency should be defined as the ratio of net positive results (excess of desired effects over undesirable ones) and allowable costs. "The solution can be called effective," they say, "if the best result is achieved at a given time (established) cost, or if the specified result is obtained at the lowest cost of choice."
Usually, the whole result of the decision is included in the concept of the result. Therefore, in determining its effectiveness (effectiveness), it is necessary to compare the positive effect with the side and reverse negative consequences. Only such managerial decision can be considered effective or effective, the positive effect of which exceeds the side and reverse negative consequences.
The previously mentioned ambiguity of the objectives of the civil service, focused on the representatives of the employer and the population, is not always captured by some authors. They connect this goal solely with the satisfaction of the social needs of the population. And the social needs of the state (and the political leaders performing it) are somehow discarded. For example, in their opinion, the most effective is the public service, which is as close as possible to the interests of society and the needs of citizens. The main purpose of the civil service is the satisfaction of the interests, needs of people, their basic social groups, primarily working people. "
Civil service, indeed, functions only as a part of state administration, i.e. simultaneously and along with representatives of the employer (political leaders). Therefore, it is not entirely justified to raise the question of the effectiveness of exclusively civilian service. Actually, in practice, only a government agency can work effectively. But in the structure of such a body, a state apparatus consisting of civil servants is quite efficient enough to work.
Some authors are trying to develop a mathematical model of the effectiveness of the civil service. But, also the civil service is replaced by the state body. For example, with regard to parliamentary activity, it is argued that the required ratio can be expressed by the formula
where Ep is the efficiency of the activities of Parliament; Pn is the result of the work of Parliament; Цп - the purpose of parliamentary activity.
Then try to correct this formula by establishing the difference between the primary state of the activity object (CC ^) and changed in accordance with the goal (C02). Therefore, the efficiency of parliamentary activity is expressed more specifically by the formula
Undoubtedly, the level of interaction with public associations and citizens or the effectiveness of the civil service will sooner or later be expressed in a mathematical model. But the proposed option is not suitable for this in any form. First of all, it does not correctly use the original concepts. The goal is never in the denominator. Instead, there must be costs (costs). In administrative management, the effectiveness of an organization (a state body, a system of state bodies) is defined as the ratio of positive outcomes (excess of desired consequences over undesirable ones) and admissible costs.
Of course, there may be different judgments about the above considerations, but one thing is certain - the effectiveness of the civil service can not and should not be determined by the effectiveness of the entire public body, in which the determining role is played not by civil servants but by political leaders. Effective work of such a state body is the foundation, the guarantee of effective work of civil servants, but the effectiveness of civil service is a completely different problem. To solve it, the necessary knowledge has not been developed yet.
Since civil service (administrative power) is only part of the state organism (along with political power), some authors try to analyze this problem through the costs of legislative activity. The result is a formula
where Egs - the effectiveness of the civil service; And, - Ip - the interests of citizens; Зз - expenses for legislative activity.
But this is an unrealistic formula, because the & quot; interests & quot; (ideal) divided by & quot; costs & quot; (material) is unlikely to give anything reasonable. A similar nature has other formulas.
So, what is the effectiveness of the civil service (administrative apparatus) in the system of public administration? This problem, as we have already said, takes an honorable place in the work of many managerial specialists, both theorists and practitioners. Undoubtedly, efficiency is directly related to such indicators as the level of achievement of the goal, i.e. result, and the size of the costs made in this process. But not the apparatus as such, but the state organ. If we bring these three indicators into proper correspondence, we get the following formula, which can be called the law of effectiveness of the state body: the effectiveness of the state body in public administration is directly proportional to the level of achievement of the goal (result) and inversely proportional to the quantity and quality of funds, used for this.
Therefore, the public agency is effective if the given result (RR) is obtained at the lowest costs (NOR):
Or another option: a public agency is effective if the best result (LR) is obtained at a given cost (ZI):
Indeed, the effectiveness of civil service can not exist on its own. It is determined only in the composition of the state body. A well-functioning government agency makes it possible to evaluate the civil service of this body as quite effective. Therefore, if it is said about the effectiveness of public administration, then it mainly relates to the activities of state bodies. It has already been said that the representative of the employer (political leader) and the apparatus (civil servants) are dialectical opposites. They, as a rule, are in unity, but at the same time and in constant struggle. Therefore, in their activities, various options are possible:
1) if the representative of the employer has a high administrative culture and sufficiently strong organizational skills, then his management of the administrative apparatus and the state body as a whole will definitely be successful, even if somehow somebody has to be insured;
2) If the representative of the employer is poorly prepared for managerial activities and poorly versed in organizational matters, then his intervention in the generally accepted management technologies can only lead to a poor result;
3) if the representative of the employer is poorly versed in professional management, but is considered soberly with this fact, the success of the state body will be entirely determined by the professionalism of the administrative leader and due organizational training of the employees of the staff;
4) if the representative of the employer and the administrative head of the apparatus of the state body are equally professionally incompetent, then it is obviously inadvisable and even socially harmful to create or continue the activities of such a state body.
It follows from this that it is necessary to teach professional activity and subsequently constantly raise it not only for civil servants, but also for political leaders (representatives of the employer). Of course, newly elected governors, presidents of republics, ministers and deputies of all levels can not be taught for a year or more, it is advisable to teach them only in short-term courses (one to two months). But you must teach them. Here it is necessary to use the experience of the Soviet government to train state and party leaders, who somehow forgot.
o The subjects of the United States are historically formed territorial-national formations, currently forming their systems of state administration, economic support and local self-government within a single political and administrative space. As independent subjects
The federations are the Russian regions, regions, cities of federal significance, as well as national republics, the region and autonomous regions. Recently, the constituent entities of the Federation have been named "regions."
o Civil service of the subjects of the Federation is the professional activity of citizens on the posts of the state civil service for ensuring the execution and execution of the powers of regional state bodies.
o Features of the civil service of the subjects of the Federation: 1) has a transitional character, its structure has not yet developed and has a number of levels, forms and elements that should gradually be transformed or completely disappeared; 2) represents a practically independent section of the state administration, poorly connected with the federal and municipal services; 3) at present, in the main features, gradually begins to repeat the structure of the federal civil service; 4) as well as at the federal level, most of the regional civil servants are also women.
o Classification of civil services of the subjects of the Federation: 1) on the territorial-national principle - civil services of 55 Russian provinces and regions, 2 Russian cities of federal significance, 21 national republics, 1 autonomous region and 4 autonomous regions; 2) by levels of state power - civil services regional and district; 3) on the branches of state power - civil services of the legislative (representative), executive, judicial and other authorities.
o The civil service system of the constituent entities of the Federation should be built on the balance of two principles - unitary and federative, which are extremely necessary for the successful functioning of a large and multinational Russian state.
o Optimization of the civil service of the subjects of the Federation, apparently, should take place in two main areas. One is to solve common problems of improving the civil service of all constituent entities of the Federation, as well as its interaction with the federal civil service. Another is to pay more attention to specific issues of the formation of the civil service of certain (specific) subjects of the Federation and its interaction with the municipal service.
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