TOWNS OF URBAN PLANNING
Based on the results of this section, students should:
• the foundations of urban planning;
• maps and plans and their use in the design, reconstruction and restoration of buildings and structures;
be able to
• recognize the elements of the ecosystem on topographic plans, profiles and sections, zoning the territory according to environmental conditions, assessing environmental changes under the influence of construction;
• the foundations of modern methods for designing populated areas and cities.
Urban planning - the science and practice of organizing and shaping the basic life environment of a person and society in time and space. The basis of this science is the placement on the territory of everything that ensures the life processes of a person, and the forecasting of conditions for the creation of both an artificial environment for people and a natural environment, and in their mutual ordering.
Urban development affects many aspects of life, it synthesizes the latest achievements of science and technology in various branches of the national economy. Town-planning processes are inextricably linked with the development of the country's economy and culture. Modern urban planning not only includes the development of construction and architecture, but also requires the participation of specialists in the fields of economics, sociology, demography, statistics, medicine, biology, chemistry, and ecology. Only an integrated approach to urban planning problems provides theoretically substantiated, correct solutions. At its core, this should be the work of urban and regional planning.
PLANNING STRUCTURE OF THE TERRITORY
Types and elements of the planning structure. District planning
For the formation of proposals for planning organization of the territory of economic or administrative areas of the country, the so-called district planning is carried out.
District planning - a comprehensive design of the territorial and economic structure of large areas of the country with the formation of their planning structure, ensuring the optimal development and rational allocation of all sectors of the economy, cities and rural settlements, creating better conditions for work and life and recreation of the population.
The objects of the district planning are:
Many factors influence the decision of cities' plans: the city's place in the settlement system; natural and climatic characteristics of the selected territory; profile and size of the city-forming group of enterprises; conditions of functional zoning of urban areas; organization of transport links between residential areas and places of employment; accounting for the future development of the city; environmental protection requirements; conditions of engineering equipment of the territory; requirements of construction economics; architectural and artistic requirements. These factors are reflected in the planning structure of the city.
The predominance of one of the factors or the combined effect of several determines the type of planning structure: compact, dissected and dispersed.
Compact type is characterized by the location of all functional areas of the city in a single perimeter.
An exploded type occurs when a city crosses a river, a ravine, or a transit railway.
A distributed type assumes several urban planning entities linked by transport lines. The appearance of the dispersed type is determined by the nature of the city-forming group of enterprises of the given city (for example, the extractive industry) or by natural and climatic conditions.
The main planning elements of the city include residential and industrial areas, objects that form a system of urban services (administrative and public, cultural, educational, health-improving, sports, shopping and entertainment, and mass recreation), and their network of streets and squares .
Solving the problems of urban development, a person must constantly take care of the reproduction of its main components: atmospheric air, water, soil and vegetation, fauna. It should strive to rationally distribute loads to natural factors and create the necessary conditions for the ability to adapt the natural environment to these loads.
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