DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION OF THE CHILD WITH ADULTS, Definition of communication., Basic parameters of communication - Preschool pedagogy


In the first years of life the decisive role in ensuring the mental development of children belongs to adults. They are for the child carriers of universal experience. All social qualities of the developing personality of the child are formed only in the process of its interaction with others. Communication with adults serves as the only possible context in which the child comprehends and "assigns" wealth of human culture, is developing spiritually. With the enrichment of the child's spiritual life, the expansion of his connection with the world, the development of his abilities, the importance of communication does not weaken, his content becomes more complex and deep, stimulates further mental development.

Definition of communication.

Basic communication settings

The most complete problem of ontogeny of communication between children and adults is developed in the concept of the genesis of communication. Lisin, within the framework of which communication is seen as the interaction of people , aimed at harmonizing and combining efforts to establish relationships and achieve a common result.

An important characteristic of communication is the mutual activity of people. The one-sided effect of one person on another is not communication, but only impact. The criterion for distinguishing communication from other types of interaction can be people's address to each other in the expectation of receiving an answer, response . So, if a kid, listening to an adult, looks at his face, smiles in response to his words, you can be sure that communication is developing between them. If, however, the child attracted by the noise in the next room turned away or was distracted for some occupation, the communication was interrupted and replaced by cognitive activity. In young children, communication is usually closely intertwined with the game, the study of objects, actions with them. Communication can only fulfill its development function when it is realized as a person-oriented interaction, in which each of its participants acts as a subject, and not as an object of influence or manipulation.

In the concept of MI. Lisina communication is interpreted as communicative activity, having its own structure and content.

The approach to communication as an activity allows us to isolate its main points from the general flow of interaction, to understand how it develops. As the most important parameters of communicative activity are:

• The place of communication in the system of the general vital activity of the child and its significance for mental development at each age stage;

• the content of the need for communication;

• the leading motive of communication;

• The basic means of communication.

At different stages of the development of the child, these structural components together constitute integral entities that are defined as the stages of ontogeny of communication or as "forms of communication."

There are four forms of communication for a child with an adult from birth to 7 years old.

1. Situational-personal communication, which lasts from birth to 6 months.

2. Situational and business communication is the main type of communication at an early age.

3. Outside situational-cognitive communication, which is formed in the younger preschool age.

4. Outside the situational-personal communication that occurs in the senior preschool age.

Each form of communication is characterized by a specific, specific content of the parameters.

Consistent appearance in ontogeny of increasingly complex forms constitutes the development of communicative activity. At the same time, previously formed forms do not disappear, but remain, giving way to a new place.

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