Self-determination of a teenager as a stage of socialization.
The problem of self-determination was considered by SL Rubinshtein in the context of the problem of determination, i.e. the regular dependence of mental processes on the factors that generate them: "External causes act by refracting through internal conditions." He stressed the role of the internal moment of self-determination - self-determination, the individual's own activity, the conscious desire to take a definite position.
Q. F. Safin and GP Nikov understand the self-determined personality as a subject who realized what he wants (goals, life plans, ideals), that he can (his abilities, propensities, talents), that he is (his personal and physical properties ), what the collective or society wants or expects of it; those. as a subject, ready to function in the system of social relations. Self-determination, in the opinion of the authors, is a relatively independent stage of socialization, the essence of which lies in the formation of the individual's awareness of the purpose and meaning of life, the readiness for independent life activity on the basis of the correlation of one's desires, the available qualities, the capabilities and demands placed on him by the surrounding and the society . The main criteria for the boundaries and stages of self-determination should be considered the level of understanding the individual meaning of life.
The key mechanism for self-determination of a person is self-esteem - a value that is attributed to the individual or to his or her own qualities. As the main criterion for evaluation is the system of personal meanings of the individual. The main functions performed by self-evaluation are regulatory, on the basis of which the tasks of personal choice are solved, and protective, ensuring relative stability and independence of the individual. A significant role in the formation of self-evaluation is played by assessments of the surrounding personal qualities and achievements of the individual.
The problem of self-determination was considered most deeply and fully by LI Bozhovich, who understood him as the choice of the future path, the need to find his place in labor, society, life, the search for the purpose and meaning of his existence, the need to find his place in the general flow life. The author singled out an essential characteristic of self-determination, which consists in his two-fold: first, self-determination is carried out through the business choice of the profession and, secondly, through common, devoid of concreteness, search for the meaning of its existence. Only towards the end of adolescence, according to the scientist, this duality is being eliminated. The need for self-determination arises at the turn of the senior adolescent and early adolescence. The need for this need is explained by the author of the logic of the adolescent's personal and social development.
The need for self-determination is considered by LI Bozhovich as a need for the formation of a certain semantic system of ideas about the world and about oneself. In the process of a person's life and upbringing, a system of motives arises, in which leading motives, subordinating all the others, characterize the structure of the motivational sphere of a person. The emergence of this kind of system or hierarchy of motives ensures the highest stability of the individual. Also, self-determination is inextricably linked to such a significant characteristic of the older adolescent and early adolescent ages as the aspirations for the future and involves the choice of a profession, but it does not come down to it.
And. V.Dubrovina has added clarifications to the problem of self-determination. The results of the conducted studies led to the conclusion that the main psychological novelty
the formation of early adolescence should be considered not self-determination (personal, professional, wider - vital), but psychological readiness for self-determination.
Psychological readiness for self-determination suggests:
- the formation of a high level of psychological structures, first of all, self-awareness (the ability to consciously analyze their experiences, their strengths and weaknesses, to know themselves as a personality different from others);
- the development of moral attitudes, value orientations and temporal perspective, which is a mental projection of the human motivational sphere and represents hopes, fears, aspirations associated with a more or less distant future. The temporal perspective is formed throughout the whole childhood spontaneously through the assimilation of the general cultural, social, value orientations of the parents, the development of the motivational sphere;
- the formation of the preconditions of individuality as a result of the development and awareness of their abilities and interests.
At the same time, the psychological readiness to enter adulthood and occupy a worthy place implies psychological structures and qualities that are not completed in their formation, but a certain maturity of the individual, consisting in the fact that the senior pupil has psychological formations and mechanisms that enable him (psychological readiness) of the continuous growth of his personality now and in the future.
In foreign psychology, as an analogue of the concept of "personal self-determination" the category "psychosocial identity", developed and introduced by the American scientist E. Erikson, appears. The process of becoming a person in a transitional age is considered by him through the prism of the concept of "identity" - the identity (adequacy) of a person to himself, the ability to own one's own self & quot; I & quot; regardless of the situation. The mechanism for the formation of identity is, according to E. Erickson, the consistent identification of the child with an adult. The teenager tries to work out a single picture of the worldview in which all values, assessments, experiences of childhood should be synthesized, he must solve all old tasks consciously and with inner conviction, reassess himself in relations with close people, with society as a whole in the physical, social and emotional plans. The uncontrolled crisis of identity leads to a state of acute diffusion of identity and forms the basis of social pathology of adolescence. There is a regression to the infantile level and a desire to delay the acquisition of the adult status as long as possible. The teenager has a feeling of isolation and devastation, a fear of personal communication and the inability to affect emotionally the people of the other sex, the hostility to recognized public roles. If an individual successfully copes with the task of acquiring identity, he has a sense of who he is, where he is and where he should go next.
From the whole range of issues related to the problem of self-determination, issues of professional self-determination are developed in psychology in the most detailed manner. SP Kryagzhd noted that at the initial stage professional self-determination is of a dual nature: either a choice of a particular profession is made, or the choice of a professional sphere is a social choice. The author pointed out that if a specific professional self-determination has not yet been formed, then the individual uses a generalized option, postponing for the future its concretization. The researcher considers social choice as the restriction of the individual to a certain range of professions, and this is qualitatively a lower level of professional self-determination.
Self-determination as a personal growth occurs at the end of early adolescence. Its formation is due to self-consciousness developing in adolescence: at about 11 years the child has an interest in his own inner world, then there is an increase in the differentiation and generalization of self-consciousness, which leads the 15-16-year-old to a relatively stable self-image. >
By 16-17 years self-determination begins, characterized by self-awareness as a member of societies, concretized in a new, socially significant position, and expressed in determining the meanings of one's own existence. Personal self-determination does not end in adolescence and early adolescence, but becomes the basis for one's own further development.
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