SOCIALIZATION AND INDIVIDUAL INCLUSION
As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:
• know the specificity of the leading theoretical concepts of socialization and inculturation of the individual, formed in social anthropology, the system of methods of scientific cognition of the processes of socialization and inculturation, the categorical apparatus for the study of socialization and inculturation;
• be able use modern methods of scientific knowledge to study the processes of socialization and inculturation;
• own skills acquisition, replenishment and implementation of knowledge in the field of anthropology of childhood, the use of methods and conceptual apparatus in the field of socialization and inculturation for solving educational and theoretical problems.
The essence and specificity of socialization, inculturation and cultural transmission
The process of forming a person's personality is closely connected with the process of mastering the culture of his social environment. The active and knowing person is incapable of building his activity without reliance on the elements of such a culture; while the main for a person are social values and norms, as the benchmarks of his life aspirations.
Anthropologist questions arise:
How and how does a person become able to freely navigate in his environment?
- how does it come to him to use the cultural objects worked out before him, to exchange the results of physical and mental labor?
- how does a person get the ability to establish rapport with other people, without which social interaction is impossible at all?
The answers to these questions are directly related to understanding the phenomenon of socialization. The origins of the theory of socialization are contained in the works of G. Tard describing the process of the individual's mastering of values and social norms through social interaction. According to Tardus, the basic principle underlying the socialization process is imitation. In particular, thanks to this quality, the child learns the language. Imitation forms the basis of learning and provides opportunities for the transfer of cultural tradition from generation to generation.
Typical social attitude G. Tard recognized the attitude of "teacher-student". Modern concepts of socialization tend to overcome such a narrow approach. Classics of sociological science, in particular, T. Parsons, consider socialization as a process in the course of which such personality traits are formed that are realized in the role structure of society. Learning social roles takes the form of simulation.
In modern humanitarian knowledge, a considerable number of theories of socialization have developed, each of which tries to interpret this process in its own way. There are such directions of anthropology for which socialization and inculturation are the main subject of research, in particular, anthropology (ethnography) of childhood, direction "Culture and Personality", cross-cultural psychology, etc. The works of representatives of these directions often turn out to be similar not only for the object , but also by methods of research.
In particular, modern cross-cultural studies of the socialization of children can be conditionally divided into several groups.
• Study of the process of socialization, its means, methods, as well as specific ways of children's learning of the culture of their people.
• Investigation of the relationship between the upbringing of children and other aspects of the life of a particular society.
• Comparison of the immediate results of socialization, as an answer to the question: how do children who grew up in different cultures differ, what are their values, ideals, behavior stereotypes.
Special problem for direction "Culture and Personality" - this is the study of distant results socialization. In this case, the attention of researchers is aimed at establishing the relationship between the methods of child rearing, on the one hand, and the nature of the adult, his way of living in a particular culture.
The concept of socialization is interpreted in the literature in different ways. Deserves attention suggested by the domestic researcher AV Mudrik & quot; subject-subject & quot; approach to its understanding. If within the framework of the subject-object approach society is conceived as a subject and the individual as an object of socialization, then AV Mudrik treats socialization as "development and self-change of a person in the process of mastering and reproducing a culture that occurs in the interaction of a person with spontaneous, relatively directed and purposefully created conditions of life at all age stages. The essence of socialization consists in the combination of adaptation and isolation of a person in the conditions of a particular society & quot; .
It is easy to see the merits of such an understanding: here, both those who socialize and those who socialize are viewed as active social actors, and the socialization process itself is treated not as a simple impact on the object, but as an active interaction of subjects.
I.V. Leskov draws attention to important components of the socialization structure, pointing out that "the essence of socialization consists in the combination of adaptation (social adaptation), isolation of a person (individualization) and integration (integration) in the conditions of a concrete society" .
Within the framework of socio-cultural anthropology, specific approaches to understanding socialization have developed.
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