The symbolic nature of the unconscious
One of Freud's closest disciples was Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961). He was born in the family of an evangelical pastor in Switzerland. Despite the relative poverty, the father was able to arrange a son in a prestigious gymnasium, where Karl faced very wealthy children, which gave birth to various complexes in it. By his own admission, he realized how different he is from peers, coming to classes in ragged shoes.
When Jung was in his fifth year, a book came into his hands, the author of which claimed that psychology is the doctrine of personality. This judgment caused a lot of different feelings in the young man. He remembered that, having learned something about psychology, he could not sit, his heart was beating fast. Walking along the corridor, he reflected that neither philosophy, nor religion, nor medicine, did not study the person. And this theme seemed to Jung desired and inviting. At that moment, Jung thought that only psychology can create a holistic doctrine of personality, about a person.
Subsequently, Jung discovered that Freud never had a developed philosophical culture. Then the Swiss psychologist began to seriously study the philosophers of life, especially F. Nietzsche. At the same time, Jung discovered interest in the mystical spiritual tradition. He shows interest in the occult and in various forms of religion. As a result, his thesis "About psychopathology and pathology of the so-called occult phenomena" was born. " It shows that integrity is not set on the paths of ordinary rational thinking. But the unity of the personality, the proximity of the rational and the irrational can be the result of a purely intuitive insight.
Then Jung met Freud and went to work for him. The first stage of his activity completely fits into the mainstream of classical psychoanalysis. However, world outlooks are also being born. During the correspondence, Freud once reproached Jung with the fact that he does not find in his works the "ideas of the unconscious." Of course, the thought of the unconscious was not alien to Jung. However, the approach to the theme of Jung was purely individual. Freud believed that consciousness and the unconscious are in a state of confrontation, they, like demons, pull the person in different directions. Jung insisted that the unconscious and consciousness are two parts of a coherent psyche and mutually complement each other.
Freud, in fact, reduced the unconscious to biology, to the sexual activity of man. Jung challenged these provisions. He saw in the unconscious not so much biological discoveries of the body, as intuitive layers of the psyche. That is why, Jung thought, the unconscious absorbs the sum of all the features of a person and in general turns out to be the sum of the experience of all generations that have passed through the earth. Freud believed that the unconscious is exhausted by the products of the individual psyche. He believed that the unconscious is as individual as the shape of the nose or the color of the eyes. Jung expanded the notion of the unconscious. He freed him from the narrow, individual content. Jung showed that the unconscious is transmitted from generation to generation. And this means that in it one can find something that does not fit into the individual psyche at all. The unconscious is the crystallization of the aggregate human experience. And this means that in the individual psyche you can find such content, which is not dictated at all by the life of this particular person.
Therefore, the unconscious detects not only the person's personal content, but also includes the collective experience. It accumulates, passing through generations, and thus a certain whole is formed. It also acts for a copy of a person as a specific life program.
According to CG Jung, the unconscious consists of three layers:
1) personal unconscious, ie. the surface layer of the unconscious, which includes mainly emotionally colored ideas and complexes that form the intimate soul life of the person;
2) the collective unconscious, ie. congenital deep layer of the unconscious, a common center, or nucleus, a psyche that has not an individual but a universal nature that has concentrated in itself the experience of all previous generations of people. This core of the psyche includes a superpersonal universal content and patterns as the universal basis of spiritual life. The contents of the collective unconscious are mainly archetypes - inherited universal patterns, symbols and stereotypes of mental activity and behavior;
3) psychoid unconscious, ie. the most fundamental level of the unconscious, possessing properties common to the organic world, and a relatively neutral character, so that it, the psychoid unconscious, is not completely psychic or physiological, almost completely inaccessible to consciousness.
Freud defined libido as a psychic energy of a sexual nature. Jung frees this concept from sexual content. Jung accepts the idea of the existence of a certain psychic energy. Its quantity is always constant. Freud believed that the unconscious is the discovery of the libido, his individual personal characteristics. Jung insisted on the collective unconscious.
Another deviation from the classical psychoanalysis of Jung. Freud believed that the emergence of neuroses, which lead to the deformation of the personality, happens in childhood. Mostly Freud drew attention to the theory of child sexuality. He noted that susceptibility to neuroses - the event of a child's life up to three years. Then these neuroses can affect the entire fate of man. Therefore, therapy in classical psychoanalysis was built on a memorial work, immersing in the past.
Jung believed that it is better for the therapist to pay attention to the analysis not of the past, but of the present. It seemed to the Swiss psychologist that the scrupulous accumulation of facts and details allows one to imagine a clinical history. But in this way, the patient can not be cured. And this is important, according to Jung. So, the unconscious acts like energy, arises as a collective unconscious and manifests itself in the psyche of an individual through symbols.
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