Latin word "classis & quot; borrowed from ancient Greek, where the word k λησιζ meant "vocation", "career", "locking", "boom". Later it began to denote, as evidenced in the "Protestant Ethic" M. Weber, & quot; called & quot; citizens, i. recruited from the citizens unit. The theologian and interpreter of the Holy Scriptures, Archbishop Theophylactus of Bulgaria (11th-12th centuries), and then Martin Luther (16th century) translated Greek kλησιζ as "remaining in their rank", "their profession", "knowing their place". The same Luther brings together the values of the Greek kλησιζ of the Latin status and the German Stand. All of them are translated as "position". The notion of class, introduced in its time into the scientific revolution of Thierry and Guizot, primarily to designate the political division of society, later acquired almost exclusively an economic character. This approach sociology is mainly due to K. Marx and M. Weber, who used the notion of class in the most developed form.
In sociology, a class is understood in two meanings - broad and narrow.
• In a broad sense, the class is a large social group of people who own or do not own the means of production, occupy a certain place in the social division of labor system and are characterized by a specific way of generating income.
As private property emerges in the period of the birth of the state, it is believed that already in the Ancient East and Antique Greece there were two opposite classes - slaves and slaveholders. Feudalism and capitalism are no exception: here, too, antagonistic classes existed-the exploiters and the exploited. This is the point of view of Karl Marx, which today is held not only by domestic but also by many foreign sociologists.
• In a narrow sense, the class is any social stratum in modern society, different from other income, education, power and prestige.
Such a point of view prevailing in foreign sociology, now acquires the rights of citizenship also in the domestic sociological science.
Belonging to the social stratum in the slave-holding, caste and feudal societies was fixed officially - by legal or religious norms. In the class society the situation is different: no legal documents regulate the place of the individual in the social structure. Every person is free to go if there are abilities, education or income from one class to another.
Classes are a system of residual inequality. Castes and estates are based on justification of inequality: caste - religious, in estates - legal, theoretical and religious justification. Classes have no such excuses. In the class system, the strata were built on the basis of political privileges, while the economic advantages were relegated to the background. In the class system everything has changed places: the main thing is control over the means of production, distribution of wealth, professional differences. Political privileges and differences have receded into the background.
In the modern typology, three classes are distinguished and several layers within them.
The upper upper class includes & quot; aristocrats by blood, "which for generations have accumulated countless riches. They are distinguished by a special way of life, high-fashioned manners, impeccable taste and behavior.
The lower upper class consists primarily of the "new rich" who have not yet managed to create powerful clan clans that have seized top positions in industry, business, and politics. Typical representatives: professional basketball player or pop star, receiving tens of millions, among relatives who do not have "aristocrats by blood."
The upper middle class consists of a petty bourgeoisie and highly paid professionals, such as big lawyers, famous doctors, actors or TV commentators. The image of their life is approaching the high society, but they still can not afford a fashionable villa in the most expensive resorts in the world or a rare collection of art rarities.
The middle middle class represents the most massive layer of a developed industrial society. It includes all well-paid employees, middle-income professionals, in a word, people of intelligent professions, including teachers, teachers, middle managers. This is the backbone of the information society and the service industry.
The lower middle class are the lower employees and skilled workers who, by the nature and content of their labor, tend rather not to physical, but to mental labor. Their distinctive feature is an appropriate way of life.
The upper lower class includes medium- and low-skilled workers, commas in mass production, in local factories that live in relative prosperity, but behave substantially differently from the higher and middle class. Distinctive features: low education (usually full and incomplete secondary, secondary special), passive leisure (watching TV, playing cards or dominoes), primitive entertainment, often excessive use of alcohol and non-literary vocabulary.
The lower lower class is composed of the inhabitants of cellars, attics, slums and other unsuitable places for living. As a rule, they do not have primary education, are interrupted by casual earnings or begging, constantly feel an inferiority complex due to hopeless poverty and constant humiliation. They are usually called the "social bottom", or underclass. Most often they are recruited from chronic alcoholics, former prisoners, homeless people, etc.
The working class in modern post-industrial society includes two layers: the lower middle and upper lower. All intellectual workers, no matter how little they receive, are never enlisted in the lower class. The middle class (with its inherent layers) is always distinguished from the working class. But the working class is also distinguished from the lower one, which can include unemployed, unemployed, homeless, beggars, etc. As a rule, highly skilled workers are included not in the worker, but in the middle class, but in the lower stratum, which is filled mainly by low-skilled intellectual workers-employees (Figure 4.6).
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