As a result of studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• the basis of reasoning logic;
• the foundations of the organization of the language system, the functions of the language, the features of speech activity, the stylistic differentiation of linguistic means, the principles of organizing a coherent text in a monologue and dialogue; argumentative and perlocutive (affecting the addressee) properties of language units;
• principles of using the language in PR documents and advertising messages, the basic rules of literary editing, the linguistic foundations of copywriting;
be able to
• build a message in accordance with the rules and norms of the Russian language, verbally and in writing, state judgments;
• correctly assess the situation of communication from the standpoint of choosing stylistically marked means and means of speech etiquette, compositionally correctly build a dialogue and a monologue, it is appropriate to apply the laws of persuasion;
• make and edit documents, ensure that the produced texts comply with the norms and requirements of the literary language;
• the skills of the organization of utterances, the methods of selecting language tools that correspond to communicative tasks, methods of correcting the shortcomings of one's own speech and the edited text;
• the skills of creating literate written and verbal text, conducting dialogue in different conditions, methods of text correction;
• the skills of compositional, stylistic, orthologic editing of documents, the analysis of texts in terms of compliance with standards and regulations.
This chapter is as close as possible to the actual process of producing and editing text. The subject of analysis is mainly texts belonging to different styles. The teacher should pay attention to tasks in which one language material is supposed to be written different from the point of view of the estimated and emotionally expressive orientation of the texts. The work of such a plan allows us to identify such nuances of the use of words, which become apparent only when different contexts are distinguished (first of all, serious and ironic texts).
Choice of funds depending on the conditions of communicationThe term & quot; style & quot ;, as well as the term & quot; text & quot ;, seems intuitively understandable, but it turns out that it is sufficient to define both the style, and text difficult.
Academician V. V. Vinogradov defined the style as follows: "Style is a socially conscious and functionally conditioned, internally united set of methods of using, selecting and combining the means of verbal communication in the sphere of one or another nationwide, national language, correlative with other by the same means of expression that serve for other purposes, perform other functions in the public speech of the people. "
Let's consider each of the aspects of this not simple at first glance definition.
& quot; Publicly-conscious & quot; is understood as accepted by all, corresponding to a certain norm, codified. The normed language is that part of the language that is called the literary. However, the object of studying modern stylistics is not only a literary language, or the language of artistic works, or historical prose, or rhetorical performances, and the entire language in its functional diversity. In addition to the literary language, the system of the Russian language includes dialects, vernaculars, jargons, argo, slang.
Q. V.Vinogradov points to the plurality of ways of expression in the system of the national language, which serve for other purposes and perform other functions in the people's speech practice. In other words, the notion of style only occurs there and then, where and when the speaker appears choice between different systems. For example, within the literary language, the speech genre of greeting can be realized in different ways: "I greet you" - solemn, official; Hello, good evening/day/morning - neutral; hello, hello, salute - conversational. In the speech of young people, more and more space is occupied by a calico from English: a good time of day, which, at any rate at the present time, is perceived as stylistically reduced, abnormal usage lying outside the literary language and, therefore, unacceptable in official speech.
Academician V. V. Vinogradov focuses attention on the fact that style is a phenomenon functionally conditioned , i.e. the nature of the selection and combination of words depends on the function of the utterance, the scope of the use of the language or, in other words, on who, what, whom, and what for says. Consequently, the style is determined not by internal, linguistic, but by external, extralinguistic, factors. In those cases when elements of two or more styles are visible in one text, its functionality is determined by the main purposes and tasks of the utterance, or the "composition-style vector", if VG Kostomarov's terminology is used.
Let's give an example of several mnemonic rules that are known to every schoolboy: Bisectrix - this rat that runs around the corners and divides the angle in half; Pythagorean pants on all sides are equal. At the heart of each rule is a metaphor, and in the second there is even a rhyme. However, external characteristics do not make of these rules works of art, because they have another goal: to convey accurate information from the field of mathematics. With all & quot; liberties & quot; these statements belong to the scientific style, or more precisely - to the scientific and educational sub-structure.
As Vinogradov emphasizes, not only the selection of individual linguistic units determines the style, but also the methods of using and combining them. In other words, the word, the combination of words, and the order of words in the sentence can mark the style. Thus, the word person refers to a neutral style; lik - to the high, the book; little face, face, face - to the conversation; harya, muzzle, erysipelas - to vernacular; Face - to youth jargon, slang. The sentence "I know what you want to give me on my birthday" belongs to a neutral style, but if you swap the main and subordinate parts: What do you want to give me for my birthday, I know - it will acquire a shade conversationality. The sentence 'This book that shocked me' refers to a neutral style, but 'This is a book that shook me' - to the book because of the replacement of the clause of a definitive sentence by a definition expressed by the participial turnover. Since participial and adverbial movements are difficult to hear, when preparing or editing material, it is necessary to take into account the form of the speech: it is supposed to be spoken or written.
So, from the definition of V. V. Vinogradov, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1) the style arises when there is the possibility of choosing linguistic means and their organization; 2) style is determined by extralinguistic factors (who, what, to whom, why is talking); 3) in the language system there is a codified literary language and several styles outside it - vernacular, dialects, jargons, argot, slang.
However, the literary language itself is a rather complicated phenomenon, represented by several styles. The literary language is based on a neutral style, which can be used in all situations and forms the basis of all other styles.
Within the literary language, two types of styles are opposed: colloquial and book (official-business, scientific-professional and journalistic). Words and expressions that are used only in certain communication situations (this also applies to certain syntactic constructions, grammatical forms, pronunciation variants, etc.) are called stylistically marked.
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