Different types of management projects can occur in different organizations. Often they are approved by special committees and imply:
• scale measures to reduce costs;
• merger, creation or division of companies;
• Significant geographical or market expansion.
The most common type of management projects are projects to create and change the organizational structure (restructuring). The main problem here is that the structure options are character dilemmas: by improving one parameters (for example, by reducing the number of subordinates of the manager with the aim of improving the quality of the management, you will get worsening of other parameters, in particular, increasing the number of hierarchy levels in the organization that gives it is more bureaucratic features - lack of behavioral flexibility, adaptability to changes in the external environment). Thus, reorganization is a multicriteria task combining scientific methods of analysis with consideration of subjective possibilities and interests of people. Therefore, such projects require high qualification of both designers and project implementers. However, not all organizations can fulfill these conditions, therefore, most often such projects are external, carried out by consulting firms.
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Other types of management projects are specific cases specific to individual organizations. Management projects often become fertile ground for the preparation of projects of other categories listed above. It is impossible to establish criteria for identifying major management projects because of their significant diversity and the importance of each such project.
In many organizations, there is a relatively large number of individual small projects. Each of them could be managed effectively, without resorting to the concepts of formal project management. But when the number of such projects is large, many of them are deprived of effective management, as evidenced by temporary delays, less profit, and overspending of the approved budget.
When an organization simultaneously implements several projects (relating to any of the categories described above) and when they collectively create economic risks equal to or greater than those that could create one large project, it is appropriate to use the term multi-project environment (or multiproject) . Projects that make up a multiproject are sometimes called subprojects. In this case, some of the above project management body for several projects may not be created. In this case, the pooling or synergy of the subprojects is carried out through the coordination of the overall activity (for example, in the construction of several objects, one organization can be instructed to build a system of building communications, their foundations or something else in a single contract).
Another factor in the pooling of projects is the benefit obtained through the organization of the general supply of all projects or the drawing up of a schedule for the use of construction equipment in succession at different sites, each of which is a separate project.
A more complex task is the coordination of the objectives of individual subprojects. They should be taken into account for the purposes of a common multiproject. However, the problem here lies in the fact that the objectives of multi-project management can not push smoothly in the future, if the achievement of the objectives of any part of such a project is delayed, as otherwise the delivery of other projects as part of a multiproject will also be delayed, which in general will reduce the effectiveness of the project management.
It is difficult to draw a clear boundary between the multi-project environment and the multi-contractual situation, which consists in routine sales, production and delivery of products. If each contract is a repetition of the previous one with only minor changes or innovations, then such contracts should not be considered as projects. If the contract involves a significant modification of the product or its adaptation to the needs of the user, it is better to consider each such contract as a project.
A good example is the installation of telephone switching stations. The production and delivery of standard equipment is not a project. However, the design, installation, testing and delivery of a ready-made telephone station of the required configuration is obviously a project that will, of course, depend on the usual, repetitive production of many standard parts and, in most cases, some specially designed parts.
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Multi-project management is now widely used by organizations whose activities are focused on the management of projects - consulting, audit, legal, design firms themselves. But it is increasingly penetrating into strategic corporate governance. In diversified corporations of the holding type, where there are several independent business units at the level of the parent management company, a project-matrix organizational structure is created, which operates on the basis of the "embedding" activity on multiproject project management in business units of the corporation into its overall strategy.
Thus, multiproject management is a special type of project management, adapted for the management of an organization that simultaneously and regularly executes a large number of projects. The goals of multi-project management are compiled on the basis of the objectives of the projects being implemented, and the lifecycle of the multiproject does not have precisely defined phase transitions and is determined by the progress of all projects.
In conclusion, we note that there is no clear logical boundary between the multiproject and the program. Both are made up of projects, but in the case of a multiproject, the centralization of subproject management is more pronounced. Programs are more prognostic in nature, i.e. show the forecasted values of the development of the system for a long-term period.
A large variety of projects makes up the complexity for their classification. Projects differ in type (spheres of activity in which they are implemented).
Depending on where they are performed, they distinguish between internal and external projects.
Depending on the composition, structure of the project and its subject area, there are mono-projects, multiprojects and metaprojects.
The nature of their subject area distinguishes between investment, innovation, research, educational and mixed projects.
Depending on the degree of rigidity (or variability) of the interconnection and interdependence between the individual elements of the project, technical and non-technical projects are distinguished. The former are based on engineering knowledge and the laws of nature, the latter are strongly dependent on the interests of project participants (stakeholders). Because the cause-effect relationships in these projects are not always unambiguously defined, such projects demonstrate the property of equifinality: the ability to achieve the desired result of the project in different ways, through a different sequence of actions.
Using engineering methods of calculation, calculation, modeling, etc. leads to predominantly rigid methods of project management, while the orientation of project management on the interests, opinions, needs of people participating in the project leads to the predominance of soft management methods (wide application of knowledge and methods of sociology, psychology, conflictology, etc.).
Depending on the duration of the project, short-term (up to one year), medium-term (from one to five years), long-term (over five years) projects are allocated.
The degree of novelty of projects and the experience of personnel in their design and implementation determine the allocation of innovative and routine, traditional and non-traditional projects.
In addition to the general principles of project classification, there are also private, sectoral, as well as related projects to different types of activities or management methods. In particular, the following types of projects are distinguished: projects implemented by commercial and state enterprises under contracts, projects for research, development, engineering, construction and other projects for the creation of basic means of production, projects on information systems, management projects, multiprojects. >
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