Methods for assessing individual types of property of an organization
For the implementation of the current accounting of certain types of property of the organization and the formation of information about them in the accounting reports, various methods for assessing this property are used.
Estimate of fixed assets provides the following types of value:
- the initial, according to which objects are accepted for accounting, - is determined based on conditions and sources of income;
- rehabilitative, established after reassessment and reflecting the real value of the objects, taking into account inflation and changes in prices and tariffs
- the residual calculated at the balance sheet date as the difference between the original (replacement) value and the amount of amortization accrued up to this point.
In turn, depreciation is an economic mechanism of gradual transfer to the costs of the reporting period part of the value of fixed assets in order to recover and accumulate cash for their subsequent reproduction. The written off part of the value of fixed assets, called depreciation, is included in each reporting period in the organization's expenses throughout the useful life of the facility.
The useful life of depreciable property is the period during which an item of fixed assets and (or) intangible assets serves the purposes of the organization's activities and brings economic benefits to it.
Legislative acts and regulatory documents on accounting and tax accounting provide for four methods for calculating depreciation:
- linear (uniform), consisting in the calculation of the annual amount of depreciation, based on the initial cost, the depreciation rate and the useful life of the object. The amount received is divided by 12 months, the monthly amount of depreciation is determined, which is included in expenses starting from the first day of the month following the month of receipt. The process of accrual of depreciation is terminated from the first day of the month following the month of the object's decommissioning;
- the method of decreasing balance (accelerated depreciation) - provides for the use of the accelerated depreciation factor, which allows you to recover most of the value of objects in the first years of operation, and use the funds to upgrade and upgrade the material and technical base;
- a method of writing off the value of the sum of the numbers of years of useful life, which is also considered a method of accelerated depreciation. For example, with a SIP of 5 years, the sum of the years is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + + 5 = 15, and the amount of depreciation is: for the 1st year - 5/15; 2 nd - 4/15; 3rd - 3/15; 4 th - 2/15; 5th - 1/15 of the original cost;
- the method of write-off of costs in proportion to the volume of products (works, services) is used in calculating depreciation of production machines, equipment and vehicles. For the calculation of depreciation deductions, the indicators of planned and actual volumes of output, the initial cost of facilities and IPS are used. The calculation formula is a product of the initial value of fixed assets (intangible assets) and the ratio of the actual output to its planned value.
Valuation of intangible assets is made in the same way as fixed assets. Depreciation is also calculated by analogy with fixed assets, except for the accrual basis for the sum of the years of the useful life. A special feature of intangible assets is that depreciation is accrued only for those objects for which the yield does not decrease with the increase in IPN, and only for objects for which this term can be uniquely determined.
The method of calculating depreciation of an intangible asset is annually checked and specified by the organization. If the calculation of the expected receipt of economic benefits from the use of intangible assets has changed significantly, the method for calculating its depreciation should also be changed. The adjustments that have occurred in this connection are reflected in the accounting and reporting as of the beginning of the year as changes in the estimated values.
If the accounting reflects the goodwill of the organization in the form of the difference between the purchase price of the organization and the book value of its property complex as of the date of its purchase, the accounting policy fixes the procedure for its write-off, as a rule, for 20 years (no more than the term of the organization ) using a linear method. Negative goodwill in full amounts to the loss of the organization.
Valuation of inventories (MPZ) is carried out:
- at the cost of a unit of inventory (identification method) with a small nomenclature of materials, precious stones, metals and products from them;
- the average cost price;
- by the method of FIFO (/ pC) - but the cost of the first batch received.
The right to choose the valuation method applies only to the material and production reserves that are released into production. The use of the latter two methods of estimating MPEs implies their assessment during the reporting period at the accounting (conditional) price. At the end of the month, a special calculation is made of the actual cost of MPZ and reveals the deviation of the actual cost price from the discount price for the purpose of their further write-off and inclusion in production costs:
To calculate the actual cost price, the percentage of deviations is multiplied by the cost of materials released per month into production, and is divided by 100%:
In accounting, the cost of materials released per month into production is reflected in the following postings. At the registration price: DEBIT 20 "The main production"; CREDIT 10 & quot; Materials & quot ;. For overdraft amount: DEBIT 20 & quot; Primary Production & quot ;;
CREDIT 16 "Deviation in the value of tangible assets."
For the amount of savings:
DEBIT 20 & quot; Primary Production & quot ;;
CREDIT 16 "Deviation in the value of tangible assets" method "red reversal".
Finished goods is reflected in the balance sheet at the actual or planned production cost, including the costs of fixed assets, raw materials, materials, fuel, energy, labor used in the production process and other costs or for direct articles. In storage areas, finished products can be valued at discount prices, in the form of actual, regulatory, contractual, etc.
If the finished product is valued in the current accounting at the standard cost price or contractual prices, the difference between the actual cost price and the discount price is reflected in a separate account subaccount 43 & quot; Finished Products & quot; - Deviations of the actual cost of finished products from accounting value & quot; for individual groups or for the organization as a whole. The excess of the actual cost price over the accounting value is reflected in the debit of this sub-account and the credit of the cost accounts. The negative difference is reflected by the cancellation record.
The write-off of finished goods during shipment and release can be made at an accounting value. Deviations related to sold finished products are written off in proportion to its recorded value, and those related to the finished product remain on the corresponding sub-account of the "Finished Products" account. Regardless of the method of current valuation, the total cost of finished products should equal its actual production cost.
Goods are reflected in the balance sheet at the cost of their acquisition. Retail trade organizations can also take into account the goods also at sales prices, with the difference between the purchase price and the selling price (discounts, capes) reflected in a separate account 42 "Trade mark-up." Since the goods are included in inventories, they are fully subject to the requirements of PBU 5/01 "Inventory accounting", and in addition to the methods of valuation listed above, it is allowed to estimate the methods provided for the materials.
Goods, works, and services shipped in accordance with Clause 61 of the Accounting Regulations are reflected in the balance sheet according to the actual or normative (planned) full cost, including, along with production costs, costs associated with the sale (sale) of products, works, services, reimbursable contractual (contract) price. There is no possibility of choosing an option for a valuation - the method is determined by the specifics of the production.
Incomplete production in accordance with clause 64 of the Regulations on Accounting is estimated: actual or standard (planned) production cost; direct items of costs; cost of raw materials, materials and semi-finished products. The choice of the method is possible only in mass and serial production. In a single production, the actual cost price is applied. The evaluation of unfinished production for tax purposes is governed by Ch. 25 of the US Tax Code.
Inventories obsolete, completely/partially lost the original quality and with a reduced market value are reflected in the balance sheet minus the reserve for the reduction of the value of material values. There is a warning of possible losses of the organization from a decrease in the book value of current assets in comparison with market prices and the formation of more reliable information about the actual value of the organization's financial results.
The formation of a reserve for the reduction of the value of tangible assets at the end of the reporting period is reflected in the account under the debit of the account 91 "Other income and expenses" and credit account 14 "Reserves for impairment of tangible assets" for the amount of the difference between the cost of resources in the accounts and the market value.
In the financial statements, the reserve for reducing the value of tangible assets, formed at the end of the reporting period, is deducted from the corresponding items of the asset of the balance sheet and is not specified separately in the liability. In the next reporting period, as the material values for which a reserve is formed are written off, under the debit of Account 14, "Reserves for Decrease in the Cost of Material Values" and credit account 91 "Other income and expenses" the reserve is restored. A similar entry is made with an increase in the market value of MPZ, for which reserves were previously created. The choice of a specific variant of the inventory price of reserves, as well as the decision to create estimated reserves, belongs to the organization and must be fixed in its accounting policy.
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