The role of information obtained from the decision maker
An important source of information necessary for the correct statement of the problem is talk with decision-makers (LPR), in the company-customer. Given the extreme employment of senior management, we must first draw up a plan for the conversation. Here is one of its possible schemes.
1. What triggered the order of marketing research?
2. What alternatives are considered by the company? Let their list be incomplete. Other options for possible actions can be detected through qualitative research, for example, during focus groups.
3. By what criteria will be chosen? For example, what product will be introduced to the market: promising the largest sales volume, the largest profit, the largest market share or the highest return on capital investment?
4. What information does the leader need to make a decision?
5. How does the firm usually make decisions? How specifically will the information collected during this study be used? At some firms the order of preparation and decision-making is decentralized, on others everything is always decided by the head of the firm. Accordingly, in some cases, the report on the study will be directly used in the preparation and adoption of strategic decisions. In others - the head of the company, if desired, will be only familiar with the summary prepared by the employees of the company on the basis of the report.
The questions asked by decision-makers allow us to identify problem solving . After that, the researcher translates the problems of the decision-maker into the language of the problems facing the research, or, as it is called, marketing research problems . Here are some examples that will help clarify the difference between the two (Table 2.2).
Table 2.2. Examples of marketing problems of decision-makers and marketing research problems
Management decision problem
Marketing research problem
Do I enter a new product?
Study consumer preferences, evaluate the intention to buy a new product to be released
Do I need to change the plan for an advertising campaign?
Evaluate the effectiveness of your advertising campaign
Do you want to increase the price for this product?
Estimate the elasticity of demand for price, sales and profit at different prices
The role of secondary data
The successful formulation of the research task is often the result of the timely detection of market trends based on secondary data , that is, data collected on a regular basis or collected once, but not to solve this particular problem, but differently about. We give an example of this kind.
Research for the & quot; Slice & quot; magazine
In the early 1990's. in the United States, the number of magazines for young people was growing rapidly. Advertising revenues of one of them - the magazine "Slice" gradually began to fall. It seemed that it was a matter of competition. But unexpectedly, analyzing the secondary data, the management of the magazine & quot; Slice & quot; has revealed an important demographic trend: by 1995, the number of young women on whom the journal is targeting will decline. This will increase the number of teenagers. Other secondary data were attracted, which showed that teenage girls are an attractive target for advertisers. Suffice it to say that most of them use shampoo daily, and they choose it themselves. Ordering a special study, the management of the magazine found ways to win the sympathies of teenage girls. Revenues from advertising increased dramatically.
The role of qualitative research
Sometimes it is useful to conduct qualitative research for an accurate statement of the problem. Let's explain this with an example.
Market research of women's cosmetics
American cosmetics firm " Avon Products & quot; decided to penetrate the Spanish market of women's cosmetics. From secondary data, it follows that Spanish women in general have a fairly high cultural level. The first thought was to choose the strategy of undifferentiated marketing and build, based on this, a single marketing complex. Nevertheless, it was decided to hold a series of focus groups.
It turned out that the idea of the approximate equality of the cultural level of Spanish women is superfluous, that there are social groups with different levels of culture, perceptions and beliefs. The task was to segment the market. As a result of a well-conducted study, the firm succeeded in successfully accomplishing this task: to select the & quot; key & quot; to each segment and successfully penetrate the Spanish market (Figure 2.5).
Fig. 2.2. This Spanish-speaking site Avon demonstrates part of the collection of perfumes and cosmetics created to satisfy the needs of a differentiated client population in Spain.
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