Carriers of the human psyche and psychology
All mental properties and psychological qualities are the attributes of a person and a group of people - the attributes of these objects of nature and society. A person is studied as an individual, a person, an individual, a subject by different sciences, as well as groups that characterize some community of people. In psychology, they are studied as subjects of cognition, communication, subject-practical activity and social interaction. All these concepts about the carriers of psychology and psyche acquire the status of scientific categories. The main substantive characteristics of the categories that designate the carriers of the psyche and human psychology are presented in Table. 4.3.
The universal form of life The component of nature The microcosm The measure of all things The cause of all the consequences
Definitions of an individual-individual
Child - adult Hand
The individual is a herd of direct walking (vertical position of the body)
Primate (detachment of animals) Anthropoid (family of animals)
Hominid (genus of anthropoid)
Psychological projection Touching Communicative and emotive potential Spatial-orientational potential
Voice device Sexual signs Age characteristics Ethnic signs
Homo sapiens (human species)
A man is a woman A child is an adult (age)
Speech, educational potential Sex psychology Psychology of age Psychology of ethnography
Definitions of a person-person
Socio-group signs of appearance, signs and nominations Social roles Occupation Social position
Member of the community of people A member of a social organization
Life Conversion A socially significant person
Group Psychology Status Psychology Professional Psychology
Psychology of authority
Definitions of a person-personality
Uniqueness Uniqueness Uniqueness Identity of self
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Man as a category of psychological science.
The concept of & quot; man & quot; is a category not only of psychological science. Nevertheless, for psychology this category is one of the key, since it designates the main carrier of the psyche.
In science in relation to man as an object of knowledge, there are two approaches: biological (objective) and psychological (subjective). Thus, a person can be considered within the framework of object (bodily) and subject (spiritual) properties, which are in complex interrelations. This predetermines three aspects of the vision of a person's problem and the concept of it.
The first aspect is related to the material properties of a person. Here a person is seen as a clot of energy, as one of the forms of the existence of matter, as a physical body and biological being. Within the framework of psychological science, it is about the constitutional features of a person, that is, about the characteristics of a person's body, and how the biological properties of various body systems determine (determine) mental activity person.
The second direction is related to ideal human properties , where a person is regarded as a spiritual being with a special psychic organization, psychology and soul. The properties of these phenomena are hidden behind the material form of the human body organization and therefore are inaccessible to direct knowledge. They are supposed to be the content of the inner world of man and reveal themselves in various forms of externally expressed human activity.
The peculiarity of materiality is that it is tangible and material. This is something that can be picked up, something that can be touched by the senses. Ideality is beyond the concrete-sensory contact. It can not be picked up and touched as a thing.
The third aspect of the problem, the most important and the most complex, involves the question of the interconnections of the material and ideal properties of a person. It is in their interconnection that the specifics of both are more definitely revealed. Moreover, all the ideal properties of man remain an unknowable secret without the material forms of their expression. It turns out a paradox: the psyche is "nothing" without material forms of life, but, at the same time, it is "something" defined for the person as his soul.
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From the known maxims of the science about man, the following are of primary interest for us: "man is the universal form of the organization of life on earth", "man is a component of nature", "man is a microcosm", "man is the measure of all" things "," man is the cause of all effects "," man is the transforming force of nature ". In these definitions, the meaning of the contradiction and interrelation of the object and subject qualities of a person is integrated.
Man as a universal form of organizing life on Earth
The concept of & quot; universal & quot; emphasizes the ability of a person to adapt to the various conditions of life on Earth. This preserves his life and provides further evolutionary development with access to space. In this sense, the adaptive and adaptive capabilities of man are universal.
The person's adaptive capabilities are predetermined by his body organization. The structure of the body, the organization of its organs, the morphology of the human nervous system allow it to adapt to any natural conditions of life on Earth, which is proved by the practice of human survival. Occupying this or that ecological niche, the person changed himself, so appeared the human races and adaptation types, described in detail in physical anthropology. In this sense, man is the most perfect biological species on Earth among a number of other animals that has spread all over the planet and is developing the Cosmos. Due to what it became possible?
The person's adaptive capabilities are connected with the spiritual potential of his psyche, which allows him to adjust the conditions of his existence to his own interests through transformative activities. As a result, he can create an artificial environment that protects him from dangerous natural effects. In this sense, the human psyche is the most effective tool for adapting a person to changing living conditions, an instrument of human interaction with nature and its transformation.
Here we come in close contact with the maxim of man as the transforming force of nature.
Conversion activity is associated with the cultivation of lands, forests, deserts, rivers, animals, with the development of mineral resources, the construction of housing, economic and industrial facilities, with the creation of a new subject environment. This activity changes the person himself, develops his abilities, forms a new content of life, which, in turn, influences his psychology. The consequences of this influence are affected both in a positive and negative way. The positive results of the transformative activity are obvious, the negative - they reveal themselves later, when their destructive effect affects the loss of health, mental disorders and early death.
All this gives grounds to consider man as an element and a component of nature. In the process of interaction with nature, man acts not only as a subject of transformative activity, but also as organically built into nature an element that, like nature, experiences the consequences of intrusion into the biological environment.
Evidence of this is the environmental crisis that is undergoing today, to which the barbaric attitude to nature has resulted. It is possible that the threat of ecological death will return us to an understanding of the unity of man with nature. This threat is experienced at the individual level as a loss of a strategic motive for life, which leads the individual to permissiveness or to apathy in behavior. If the will to live is preserved, then the person changes his position to a careful attitude to nature.
In the ecological crisis, another paradox of the materiality and spirituality of man is manifested. The essence of this paradox is that a person
One with nature as its element, and in this entirely dependent on it. But also as its internal component, it activates the development of nature in the direction of life or death.
The special subjective activity of man as a component of nature makes all his surroundings dependent on him. In this sense, a person turns into the cause of all the consequences. This means that the result of our social and private life is ultimately predetermined by everyone and everyone.
Therefore, each of us must take responsibility for the result of our life. The main author of his own successes and failures should be considered himself, not others. However, we accuse others of our failures, and we attribute successes only to ourselves. This behavior stems from a person's need to be in inner harmony with himself.
The circumstances of public life are never impeccable and favorable in all respects, and we ourselves make choices from what we are offered in a particular situation, so it is not so much the circumstances that determine our destiny as we ourselves. The sequence of individual actions traces the line of a person's life, his personal achievements and failures. A person does not always correctly foresee the final result of his action, so his expectations may not be justified.
Finding the criteria for the correctness of the action leads us to the problem of moral behavior. This is the problem of the higher values of human life. With her associated philosophical maxim that "man is the measure of all things". It directly refers to man as the greatest value. Nothing is as expensive as a person. Therefore, each of his actions should be commensurate with the consequences of good and evil, not only for themselves, but for others. If an act inflicts moral or material damage to another person, then such an act is regarded as immoral, despite the fact that it was made out of good motives.
The moral antinomy of good and evil leads us to the conclusion that the essence of man as the highest value is not so much in him as an individual, as in his relationships with other people. This means that a person is always a partner of other people. Therefore, he is always in the partner interdependence. Therefore, one has to correlate his act with the people around him. In this sense, an individual act is always influenced by social attitudes and external circumstances that define the limits of a person's self-realization in socially recognized activity. These boundaries are predetermined by the need of our partners in realizing the individual potential of the subjects of interaction in joint activity and life. It turns out that a person does not have absolute freedom of choice, although he can do it. This painful paradox lies at the heart of human conflicts with oneself and with other people. After all, it is a choice between loneliness and social interaction.
This could complete the basic definitions of man. But there is one more formula of the essence of man, which has come down to us from ancient Greek philosophy. It's about defining a person likemicrocosm. This metaphor contains the assumption of the identity of man to the Cosmos, which is arbitrarily interpreted in particular cases of life. Of course, man is a cosmic being, of course, he is subject to the influence of cosmic processes, of course, he absorbed all the properties of matter into his bodily and psychic organization, of course, he embodies the whole world, being a unique transformation of all properties a large world, external to it. In this large world, man himself is a special individualized microcosm, which lives also according to psychological laws, often contrary to the laws of the macrocosm.
A man is a self-controlled and relatively self-contained world, but at the same time a world open to constructive interaction with other worlds like him.
In the above sentences, the integration of the object and subject qualities of a person was demonstrated. Nevertheless, in general terms, the problem of the unity and opposition of the object and subject is initiated by a person is revealed in the philosophical views on the relationship between the soul and the body, and in psychological science is considered as a psychophysical problem. In First of all, this problem is connected with the opposite properties of two principles. The body is limited in space and time, mortal; the soul is not limited in space and time, is immortal. In psychology, this problem has two perspectives. The first angle is methodological. In this context, the problem of determination (various aspects of the mutual influence of the soul and body, based on the priority of one or another phenomenon depending on the author's ideological position), psychophysical unity or parallelism is touched upon. The second foreshortening is existential-psychological, considering the experience of the person's rejection of his bodily death and finding evidence of the immortality of the soul. In this aspect of the consideration of the antinomy of the soul and body, there is an assimilation of the general scientific problem, and a grounding in the psychology of a particular person, where the unity of mortality and immortality is the source of the numerous paradoxes of human behavior. Obviously, the infinity of the human mind gives us spiritual immortality, but it can be realized by man in different ways.
The first way to reproduce the offspring, raise children. Children bear the spirit of their parents, since they are originally our spiritual projection. But full identification of their soul with the parent is not possible, therefore the older generation has a feeling of dissatisfaction.
However, there are other forms of realization of our spiritual potential. Among them, the most common is professional activity related to art, science, pedagogy, religion, material and spiritual culture in general. Replenishment of spiritual culture occurs through diverse forms of folk art. Every person is more or less a custodian of culture and a contributor to her personal spiritual potential.
According to the results of the activity, the value of a person is checked. Even if we do not purely spiritual, but material creativity, the creation of material, consumer values, in all this we invest ourselves, with or without soul. We always project our appraisal attitude to the objects on the attitude towards their creators. The entire subject area is an open book of human relations and the spiritual potential of peoples.The paradoxical integrity of the soul and body, organism and psyche is manifested not only in the results and products of the subject-practical activity and phenomenology of man, but also in the mutual determinism (conditionality) of the objective and subjective properties of the body-human organization of man. It is known that the dynamics of mental activity as a whole depends on the physiological states of our body. This is confirmed by psychophysiological studies of mental activity. On the other hand, the successful treatment of diseases by means of psychotherapy allows us to talk about the psychological factors of a person's bodily health.
This interaction of the body and the psyche affects the evolution and development of the objective and subjective properties, attributes and qualities in their conjugated unity. Thus, the appearance in the body of a new organ (for example, the hand) predisposes the appearance of touch, and the appearance of touch stimulates the transformation of the hand into an instrument of practical and practical activity, which leads to the transformation of mental activity into psychological activity. Such transformations mark the path of evolutionary development of man in phylogenesis as a species and in ontogenesis as an individual.
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