The route of processing the body part includes the following main stages: processing of surfaces used as technological bases for subsequent processing; interconnected flat surfaces; main and fixing holes; Finishing of flat surfaces; finishing of the main holes. Each stage consists of several operations, depending on the type of surfaces to be treated and the accuracy requirements. In some cases, the route involves aging between roughing and finishing.
In a single and small-scale production, as well as in the processing of large billets, the process is conducted by marking. By marking, the position of the axes of the holes and other surfaces of the part is determined. The installation and alignment of the workpiece on the table of the machine or satellite are carried out according to the risks. In these plants, universal-assembly devices are often used to process body parts.
Planing, milling, turning, grinding and pulling are used for the treatment of external surfaces.
Single and small-scale production uses planing on planing machines.
When milling parts are processed, milling is the most common. Depending on the nature and location of the surfaces to be treated, the scale of the output of the parts is used for cantilever-milling, longitudinal milling (multi-spindle), carousel-milling, drum-milling, CNC and multi-purpose machines. The planes are milled on carousel-milling machines with continuous rotation of the table with shifting of the parts in pairs.
The roughing and finishing are carried out in sequence with two cutters. On automatic lines, flat surfaces are machined with end mills using aggregate longitudinal milling machines from one or both sides simultaneously.
Grinding is carried out on surface grinders by the periphery of the circle, with the end face of the cup and prefabricated segment circle. Flat grinding is less susceptible to casting crusts and interrupted surfaces, so the workpieces can be ground without preliminary processing by milling or planing with relatively small allowances (3-5 mm).
Handle basic holes
Drills, cutters, countersinks, boring heads, boring plates and sweeps are used to process the main holes. For finishing processing, ball rolling or roller rolling is also used. Drills are used to pre-drill holes in a continuous material. Holes more than 30 mm, as a rule, are cast. When drilling on the conductor, the accuracy of the diametral dimension according to the grade H11-1112 is reached.
The main holes of large diameter (100 mm and more) are machined with multi-boring boring heads equipped with hard-alloy plates. They allow for higher modes to shoot a large allowance for the minimum number of working strokes and are the most productive tool. Finishing processing for H6-H10 grade holes with a diameter of up to 400 mm is carried out in most cases by deployment. Use sweeps equipped with hard alloy plates.
The main holes are machined on horizontal boring, coordinate-boring, vertical-boring, carousel, aggregate, multi-purpose machines and CNC machines. The accuracy of the axle distances, the parallelism and perpendicularity of the axes, the coaxiality of the holes ensure their processing from one installation.
The accuracy of the interaxal distances and the positions of the coaxial holes relative to the bases are achieved by various methods. In a single and small-scale production, they are boring on the marking. Coordinate boring on horizontal boring machines is carried out in one billet unit. The spindle axis is aligned with the axis of each of the machined holes by moving the spindle head in the vertical, and the table in the horizontal direction in accordance with the previously calculated coordinates.
Mounting and other holes are machined on vertical drilling, radial drilling and aggregate machines. Depending on the size and design of the body parts, the serial production of the box box type conductors is used, overhead, rotary or perform marking processing.
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