Public Policy on Employment Promotion
Private ownership of the means of production and market relations of the exchange of manufactured products give rise to a social risk such as unemployment.
The state policy in the field of employment of the population in the conditions of the current financial crisis is aimed at increasing the mobility of labor resources, protecting the national labor market, supporting entrepreneurship initiative of citizens. Annually, for the move to another locality for the purpose of employment, federal budget funds are reserved. The unemployed are compensated for the costs of traveling to a new place of work by rail and housing.
Due to the changing situation in the labor market, the US government has reduced the volume of foreign labor.
Regional employment centers accept applications from the unemployed to allocate funds for the organization of small businesses. After successful protection of the business project and passing special tests, they may be granted a subsidy of 60 thousand rubles.
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The second direction of the state policy of promoting employment is the provision of assistance in finding employment for socially unprotected citizens who find it difficult to find work. Such categories of the population include people with disabilities, minors aged from 14 to 18, persons released from prison, persons of pre-retirement age, single parents with many children, and others.
The quotas for employment are the guarantees of employment for disabled people; creation of special jobs; reservation of jobs in the professions most suitable for their employment; creation of working conditions in accordance with an individual rehabilitation program; training in new professions, etc. Organizations whose number of employees exceeds 100 people, the legislation of the subject of the United States establishes a quota of 2 to 4% of the average number of employees for hiring disabled people. Failure by the employer to create or allocate jobs for the employment of disabled persons in accordance with the established quota, as well as the employer's refusal to employ a disabled person within the quota, entails the imposition of an administrative fine on officials in the amount of 5 to 10 thousand rubles. (Article 5.42 of the Code of Administrative Offenses). However, employers do not always comply with these legal requirements. The number of people with disabilities seeking employment is significantly higher than the number of jobs they offer.
The laws of the United States also provide for the quota of jobs for minors, orphans, graduates of primary and secondary vocational education who are looking for work for the first time.
In all US entities, anti-crisis employment assistance programs have been approved, which are funded from the federal and regional budgets. They are aimed at taking preventive measures to reduce the negative social and economic consequences of possible dismissal, in particular:
- for the organization of advanced vocational training of employees;
- creation of temporary jobs (public works, temporary jobs at the place of primary work for citizens at risk of dismissal, internships for graduates of primary and secondary vocational education institutions).
Vocational training of unemployed citizens and unoccupied population is conducted by occupations and specialties, which are in demand in the labor market, in the direction of employment agencies. Vocational training can be carried out for employment in specific jobs in accordance with agreements concluded by the territorial bodies of the employment service with employers.
People with disabilities who are unemployed after a six-month period of unemployment, discharged from military service, wives (husbands) of servicemen, graduates of general education institutions, as well as citizens who first seek work and who do not have a profession (specialty) have the priority right to education. >
The organization of vocational training takes into account the level of education, professional experience and health status of unemployed citizens.
Vocational training for unemployed citizens and the unemployed should be intensive and, as a rule, short-term. Its duration is established by professional educational programs and should not exceed 6 months, and in some cases 12 months. Obtaining unemployed citizens second higher or secondary vocational education in the direction of employment agencies is not allowed. Training is completed by attestation with the issuance of documents of a standard pattern (certificate, certificate, diploma).
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Vocational training for unemployed citizens and the unemployed includes the following types of training:
- training in order to accelerate the acquisition of the skills necessary to perform a particular job or group of work;
- retraining of workers to acquire new professions;
- training of workers in the second professions for the expansion of their professional profile;
- upgrading the skills of workers with the purpose of updating knowledge, skills and skills, increasing professional skills and increasing competitiveness in their existing professions, as well as studying new techniques, technology and other issues in the professional activity profile;
- retraining of specialists for obtaining additional knowledge, skills and skills necessary to perform a new type of professional activity, as well as obtaining new qualifications within the existing specialty;
- professional development of specialists with the purpose of updating theoretical and practical knowledge in connection with increasing the requirements to the level of qualification and the need to master new ways of solving professional problems
- traineeship of specialists for the formation and consolidation of theoretical knowledge, skills and skills, acquisition of professional and managerial qualities. The internship can be both an independent type of training, and one of the sections of the curriculum.
Refresher training, professional development and training of specialists are regulated by regulatory legal documents on additional professional education.
Vocational training of unemployed citizens and unemployed people for the purpose of the subsequent organization of entrepreneurial activity is one of the areas of professional training. It can be both an independent course, and one of the sections of the curriculum when teaching the second profession and professional development.
Competitive selection of educational institutions for entering into contracts with them for vocational training of unemployed citizens and unemployed population is carried out by employment agencies.
Employment agencies conclude contracts with unemployed citizens on the basis of which they are given directions for training.
The state guarantees unemployed citizens for vocational training, free medical care and examination, free education, payment of scholarships, including temporary disability.
Unemployed citizens who receive training can receive wages at the place of industrial practice for a self-made ready-made
duktsion (work), which does not affect the size of the scholarship they receive.
Employment agencies have the right to monitor the implementation of unemployed curricula and programs, attendance and progress. They receive the relevant information from educational institutions within the time limits specified in the training agreement.
The financing of vocational training for unemployed citizens is carried out at the expense of federal, regional and local budgets.
The organization of public works is governed by US Government Resolution No. 875 of July 14, 1997. public works refers to work activities that are socially useful and organized as an additional social support citizens seeking work. These include the construction of roads, their repair and maintenance, the laying of communications, agricultural work, passenger transport services, consumer services, etc. Work to eliminate the consequences of accidents, natural disasters, disasters and other emergencies is not considered public work.
The priority right to participate in public works is used by unemployed citizens who do not receive unemployment benefits, registered in the employment service for more than 6 months.
Participation in public works is allowed only with the consent of the unemployed. When referring to these works, health status, age, and occupation are taken into account.
When making a decision to liquidate an organization, reduce the number or staff of employees of the organization and possible dismissals, the employer must notify the employment authorities in writing not later than two months, and with mass dismissal of employees - no later than three months before the commencement of the relevant activities. The notice must include the position, profession, specialty and terms of payment for each employee who leaves.
If a part-time (shift) and (or) part-time workweek is introduced, the employer is obliged to notify the employment authorities in writing within three working days after the adoption of this decision.
In addition, employers are required to submit monthly information to employment agencies:
- on the application of insolvency (bankruptcy) procedures in relation to the organization, as well as information necessary for the implementation of activities for vocational rehabilitation and promotion of employment of persons with disabilities;
- about the availability of vacant jobs (positions), the implementation of the quota for the employment of disabled people.
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