Basic Forms of Speech
§ 251. Literary languages possessing a written language are realized in speech both verbally and in writing. In other words, there are two main forms of speech - oral and written, which differ in their external features, i.e. way of realization and perception, and features internal, actually language.
Oral form of speech is a sounding, spoken speech, perceived by ear. It is primary in origin and compulsory for each language, and for non-written languages, it is the only possible language. The oral form of a literary speech is used in theater, cinema, radio and television programs, in the educational process, in scientific debates, in the daily communication of literate, educated people, at meetings, meetings, production meetings, etc. The oral form of speech is characterized by many linguistic features characteristic of the colloquial style: the abundance of simplified syntactic constructions, incomplete, unfinished sentences, frequent use of interrogative, motivational sentences, expressive words and expressions, colloquial and proverbial elements, verb forms of the first and second person, etc. An incomplete style of pronunciation is common in oral speech, ie. indistinct, careless pronunciation of sounds, characteristic of a rapid rate of speech and leading to their reduction, reduction; extremely rarely used terminological and abstract vocabulary, participial and adverbial participles; widespread such techniques as repetition, self-recurrence, picking up the words of the interlocutor, various auxiliary means of communication - gestures, facial expressions, intonation.
Written is the form of speech, realized with the help of special signs of writing, depicted on paper, parchment, birch bark, canvas, on the walls of buildings, on the surface of stones and other specific objects, and perceived visually or by touch. This form of speech is secondary, later in its origin, in comparison with the oral form of speech; it is formed on the basis of the oral form of speech, preserving the basic linguistic features of the latter. The main sphere of using written literary speech is books, magazines, newspapers, various documents, official letters, as well as informal correspondence of educated people. Being secondary in origin, writing "ceases to be just a transposition of the oral", by now it has acquired "decisive importance for the development of languages in general", plays a "leading role in the formation of a single literary norm of different specific languages and, in particular, modern Russian literary language ". The most important features of written speech, in comparison with oral ones, are: clarity and clarity, completeness and correctness of the construction of sentences (which is explained by special conditions for writing, sufficient time for thinking, correction, addition), frequent use of complex sentences of different types, abundance participial and adverbial movements, the predominance of the forms of the third person verbs, a more careful selection of lexical, phraseological means, the availability of actual book words and phraseology.
Some linguists tend to consider oral and written forms of speech (or forms of language realization) as different languages. Compare the following statement of J. Vandries (unsuccessfully formulated or insufficiently qualified translated into Russian): "The French have written language and oral language are so far apart that one can say: in French they never speak as they write, and rarely write as they say. These two languages (distinguished by me - VN) differ, apart from the difference in the word order, also by the different arrangement of the words & quot;.
In addition to the above-mentioned, basic forms of speech, the transitional, intermediate form of speech, the oral form of the reproduction of written speech, or "the form of oral reproduction of written and printed texts", sometimes also called voiced written speech , or oral public speech. Oral form of reproduction of written speech (voiced written speech, or oral public speech) is realized in public speeches - lectures, reports, reports, etc. It is a peculiar combination of the features of the main forms of speech discussed above, oral and written. The peculiarity of this form of speech is conditioned by the fact that the texts of such speeches are usually prepared in written form, taking into account the requirements of written speech, but are realized, incarnated orally, using elements of oral speech. Thus, the basis of this form of speech is written speech, which in the process of implementation is somewhat modified: some clarifications, explanations are made, repetitions of individual words and expressions are allowed; it is possible to simplify and reduce complex syntactic constructions. Some peculiarities of pronunciation and stress are revealed.
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