Conditions for practical application of models
Effective implementation of models requires compliance with a number of conditions, including the presence of certain organizational and structural prerequisites (Table 30.1).
Table 30.1. Performance Criteria for Social Service Models
Statement of tasks
Clearly defined goals, objectives and expected results
Conditions for assigning the status of a disabled person entitled to receive services
Auxiliary devices and technical means of rehabilitation
Methodical guidelines, recommendations and training for rehabilitation system specialists
Protection of the rights of consumers of rehabilitation services
Quality standards and performance measures
Information support for service users
Integration of information resources, free access to the necessary information on the place of residence and the Internet
Financial and human resources
Systems for monitoring the implementation of rehabilitation programs
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Provision of community services within the general services
The provision of such services is a fundamental principle of an integrated strategy for improving the quality of life of people with disabilities by improving the quality of services, equalizing opportunities, protecting and promoting the rights of people with disabilities. To implement this principle in practice, it is necessary that the needs of persons with disabilities be taken into account by all segments of society. In accordance with this principle, all sectors and levels of economy and politics, as well as the general public, should be responsible for providing an accessible physical and social environment that encourages the inclusion and realization of the potential of all categories of people with disabilities. This principle is associated with a departure from the centralization of the social sphere and the concept of isolated maintenance of disabled people. It is aimed at creating a new social service structure that is supported by government authorities, the general public and capable of reaching all those in need of services. The principle of organization of rehabilitation services at the place of residence, taking into account available financial resources, should be taken as the basis of social policy for disabled people in all states.
The most important means of social and cultural integration of a person with disabilities is the family. The local community provides families, independently carrying out rehabilitation of the disabled person, the necessary support in meeting basic life needs. Such families are provided with additional channels of access to education, training of children for necessary household and labor skills, employment, etc. Another challenge for the local community is to protect and promote the rights of people with disabilities. Persons with disabilities, as well as their families, should be given the opportunity to take an active part in solving all questions of the local community concerning their life.
Ensuring access to rehabilitation services
The most important condition for successful rehabilitation is the removal of the barrier and the provision of access for disabled people to all social services and resources available to other members of the local community. Among other things, a barrier-free environment means the availability of information. Both the disabled themselves and all other members of the local community should have a common understanding of physical limitations and their impact on the daily lives of people with disabilities, as well as access to information (for example, demographic statistics) on issues related to disability. Persons with disabilities living in rural areas and in urban areas, regardless of their age, gender, national or ethnic origin, should have access to all services and resources provided to the population. The barrier-free environment also implies the removal of barriers to the access of public places and institutions to disabled people, as well as the use of public services and telecommunications.
The creation of rehabilitation departments in small towns and rural areas, remote from large centers, should become an important direction of the system of servicing disabled people. The organization of services for people with disabilities living in such areas in their families requires the development of a special strategy. One of the most promising ways of rehabilitation of these citizens can be the organization of exit brigades of social services for the population. The work of such brigades should actively involve volunteers from among the local population.
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When moving to the services of people with disabilities at home, various methods and means are used within the framework of the general population service system in different countries, the choice of which is determined by the specifics of local socio-demographic factors. The considered model of the organization of services has a number of advantages in comparison with the centralized service on the basis of establishments of stationary type. The need for long trips for the disabled is minimized; a person with disabilities is isolated from the outside world; family members, as well as volunteers and all interested persons, take an active part in the rehabilitation process. The joy of achievement is a person with disabilities can share with their loved ones. All this contributes to integration into the life of a society that recognizes the unique value of each member's contribution to social development.
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