Professional vocabulary in the entrepreneurs' dictionary
The basic lexico-stylistic layer in the employers' vocabulary is vocabulary and professionalism . The most frequent professionalisms are money names (cash, cash, bank transfer), of documents processing cash transactions ( receipts, account, payment), of cash transactions themselves ( payment ; posting (money); cheating).
Peculiarities of professional specialization can be shown on the example of using one of the most important terms that call the object of trade - a commodity. The term & quot; Product & quot; - the basis for professional use: bring/sell goods, 'hand over goods on arrival, the goods diverge,' breakdown of goods, take per unit of goods', delivery of goods , etc.
Some such uses are understandable to the layman (the product diverges), while the values of others are hidden and require clarification, for example take per unit of goods (ie the quantity of a product of one type , size, cost, etc.), order the goods according to specification (specification - the list in which the size, article, price of the goods is indicated.)
Product is denoted in professional speech and through a whole range of professional names, professional synonyms: positions, ruler, wholesale, party, delivery, size range, catalog, volume ; import. Each of these words fixes this or that quality of the goods, specializes its name irrespective of the nature of the commodity itself, but with respect to those operations that are carried out with the goods in a professional environment.
The name of the commodity unit, the specific type of product gets the name position. For example, mineral water "Novoterskaya". The assortment of goods available for sale or stored on a wholesale basis is called a ruler. For example, a full line of natural juices is presented. The size range is used with the value the goods of one kind, but different sizes when it comes to clothing, for example a blouse of a certain style and color. Party , delivery, wholesale, volume fix the quantity of the purchased goods with different shades of values. Party - the quantity of goods purchased for sale, differing in time of delivery: a large batch; mixed batch. Delivery - some quantity of the arrived, delivered goods: frequent deliveries ; make delivery, delivery 7 thousands. Volume - is simultaneously called the quantity of goods, and its monetary equivalent. Wholesale - purchase of goods in batches. Catalog and import update the origin of the goods: order by import, select by catalog. Cargo, samples as product names do not represent a necessary specialization, but are a realization of polysemy: sell part of the samples; As soon as the cargo (goods) comes/the samples are already hanging //. The product is called and a number of professional nominations denoting its transportation: shipments; loading; delivery; supplies; short delivery; parish, which are called both process (as verbal nouns), and the commodity itself, which is exposed to these actions: plan for shipments; collect the shipment. The names of the documents for receiving or ordering the goods: application application application, schedule. In a professional speech, the quality of the product becomes especially important: the percentage of marriage; poor, low-quality goods; re-sorting; return of clothing.
The specialization of the name of the goods is carried out depending on the trade profile of entrepreneurs. It is in this area that the greatest diversity of lexical professionalisms is observed, alongside which there are also literary words and expressions. Here are examples of specialized product names in the speech of entrepreneurs working in different areas of trade. Merchants of children's clothing sell three-prerequisites (sets of clothes for kids, consisting of three items); scratches (special clothes for babies with sewn sleeves); off-season (clothes for spring and autumn); newborn (clothes for newborns). At the same time in their speech there are literary nominations: neutral vocabulary blouse; greatcoat; shirt; jeans; tights; formal-business casual wear; leather products; colloquial down jacket; tripe; rags, common sewn , etc. Goods of shoe merchants: pair; collection; T-shirts. When naming fat and oil products in professional vocabulary, nouns are used in the plural: margarines; oil; fats; special fats. Special definitions are also used: bar margarines; soft oils; traditional margarines; frying oil; substitutes for milk fat. And finally, the actual professional, apparently borrowed from the appropriate terminology: oil seed. In the tourist business tour; Seats; tickets; documents (in the meaning of a visa, passport) are, in fact, literary words, but taking into account the fact that they appear in the professional speech as objects of entrepreneurial activity, we also refer to professional vocabulary.
In addition to professional specialization in the field of the name of goods, a large number of professional words are observed with the name
The place of work and the name of a working person. Specifically the name of the place of work. In addition to the literary store, pharmacy, enterprise , factory, firm , company are used room, institution, hall, building ; network (salons, shops); area, meters, point.
The professionalisms that call the working people are closely related to the type of activity: talker (guide in the tourism business), chewing gum (distributor of the company "Orbit"), salesman (sales manager), alcoholic (representative of a company selling alcohol), cheep person (general name of owners of private enterprises), girl (seller), nominated person (professional nomination of a person from a bureaucratic environment), seller on trust , shuttles, shuttles, champagnier, baggies, wholesaler.
By origin, professionalism is most often a rethinking of literary vocabulary: beacons, crabs, ruler which is carried out according to the metaphor model: scratches (mittens for infants), and metonymy: try other kitchens (food). The basis for the creation of professionalism can be a colloquial conversation: a pastry shop, a pastry shop ; Interseason ; naturalka (natural water from a natural source); the newborn ; low-alcohol, "wholesale. One of the traditional ways of creating professionalisms is the formation in professional speech of the plural of nouns that are absent in the literary language: margarines, oils, special fats; substitutes (milk fat); fats, meals, soup. Professionalisms can be verbal formations: hood, perfusion, processing, baking, abbreviations: BITBOBES (name kinds of margarine); KALITA; Microwave (names of electronic devices).
Closely adheres to professional vocabulary in the speech of entrepreneurs jargon . In the first years of perestroika, slang was the basis of the vocabulary of entrepreneurs. Let's give examples of the slang of entrepreneurs: tamper - to force to accept low prices; ambush - a critical economic situation; rollback - payment for an intermediary service; get married (not be able to sell the product); scam sale; solidarity (expensive goods); dead shirt (not in demand), prosish with the goods (do not sell the goods), pay by a sandwich (pay officially by cashless and unofficial way in cash ); remove the cap (withdraw cash); go to zero (incur losses); fatty layer (unsold goods).
In the early 2000's. slang is increasingly replaced by literary analogues: rollback - gift, present, envelope, personal addressing; tamper - convince; spit out - list; weld - sell.
Thus, a communicative-speech portrait of an entrepreneur is formed by typical topics of communication and a certain composition of the dictionary. The most important topics are business and money . In the vocabulary of an entrepreneur in the field of neutral vocabulary, the semantic groups man/figure, work/business, buying/selling, verbs of verb and verbs of motion are relevant. To some extent, all entrepreneurs
use the official business vocabulary. The core vocabulary of entrepreneurs is professional vocabulary.
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