Protection from hazards
Any biological system, being in a dynamically equilibrium interaction with the environment and evolutionarily developing, increases its pressure on the environment. This pressure must either be limited by external factors, or an ecological catastrophe occurs.
The law of the maximum of biogenic energy (VI Vernadsky - ES Bauer)
Expansion of any human actions should not lead to socio-economic and environmental disasters that undermine the very basis of people's existence.
The principle of reasonable sufficiency and acceptable risk (J. F. Reimers)
The risks and dangers in the development of civilization were, are and will be. And we will have to accustom ourselves to thinking about the need to live under this burden. But this means only one thing: humanity needs to learn how to minimize this risk and danger.
Academician Η. N. Moiseev
After studying the materials in this chapter, the student must:
• the most important directions for achieving technospheric security;
• principles of reducing man-made hazards;
• the main types of eco-bio-protective equipment for protection against mass flows and energy flows;
• principles for the implementation of collective and individual protection of workers and the population, regional protection, protection against extreme man-made hazards, and global dangers;
• principles of minimizing anthropogenic and man-made hazards;
• modern types of expert assessment of the dangers of the object of the economy;
be able to
• Identify alternatives for the relative location of hazardous areas and occupancy zones in the workplace and in the environment;
• The skills of choosing a profile for preparing a bachelor's degree in the direction 280700 "Technospheric Security."
Security object & quot; security concept & quot;
Security of the object of protection - is the state of the object, in which the impact on it of all flows of matter, energy and information does not exceed the maximum values for the object.
The term & quot; Security & quot; widely used in engineering, sociology, law, etc. "Safety", "safety of nuclear power plants", "safety of traffic", "radiation safety", "economic safety" etc. are familiar to a wide range of readers, but they do not always have an unambiguous interpretation and understanding. For example, when they say "safety of work", they mean the safe conduct of a production process in relation to a person. Here everything is clear and unambiguous. But if they say "safety of nuclear power plants", then in this case one can keep in mind, on the one hand, the safety of the operation of the nuclear power plant in relation to man and the environment when one considers the set of systems "man-NPP", on the other - this can be understood and how to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, i.e. as regulated work on the NPP, referring to the set of systems "NPP - external factors". In the first case, the object of protection is a person - and this is a problem of Belarusian Railways, and in the second - the NPP itself - and this is a purely technical problem, connected with the proper design and operation of the nuclear power plant. Safety standards in the first case are the norms of permissible impact of NPP on people, and in the second - the requirements for personnel to observe the operating modes of the NPP, the device of nuclear power plants, etc. To correctly assess the belonging of the security process to its executor, the term "safety" is necessary; always treated in conjunction with the term "protection object". Using this scheme, you can always correctly assess the responsibilities of performers and security services.
The term & quot; Security & quot; has practical significance only with reference to the set of systems "source of danger - protection object". Relying on the II and III principles of noxology, then we will mainly explore only two sets of systems: "technosphere - man"; as applied to the achievements of the Belarusian Railway and the "technosphere - nature" to ensure AIA, taking, respectively, as objects of human protection and nature.
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