The unconditional merit of psychoanalysis is that thanks to this theory, complex mechanisms of child development based on a meaningful understanding of the unconscious were discovered and described. The development of the child's personality began to be understood as the interaction of such components as the Eid, the Ego and the Superego. At the same time the development process appears as a process of transformation of the child's psyche, which has its clearly outlined phases. This approach allowed us to reveal the psychological features of each stage of the child's development and determine the main points associated with the emergence of problems in the formation of the personality.
The interaction between children and parents was completely different interpretation, on the basis of which the corresponding pedagogical conclusions were made. The authors of the psychoanalytic trend succeeded in finding new ways of working with such complex phenomena as child aggressiveness, fears, development of sexuality, the formation of a system of psychological protection, etc. In fact, a new psychology of child development was launched. Within the framework of this psychology, it was possible to show the enduring value of early and preschool age for all subsequent development of man. However, this interpretation of the role of childhood in the development of the psyche led to the fact that representatives of psychoanalysis began to consider any problem in adulthood as a result of traumatic impact in the distant past.
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The peculiarity of the psychoanalytic approach is that in its context the process of the child's behavior in the social situation, which is determined by cultural norms, is considered. However, culture acts in such interaction with its repressive side: it is not so much the developing personality of the child, but as overwhelming the children's initiative. The latter is not the result of the child's cognitive interest in the content of culture, but is due exclusively to biological tendencies. The result of this interaction is an emotionally intense experience, which either becomes obsolete or is forced into the unconscious. In this sense, a characteristic feature of psychoanalysis is understanding the behavior of the child as a process of detente or, conversely, the emergence of tension. Stressing the connection between children's ideas and the unconscious, psychoanalysis introduces into psychology such a parameter of the course of the mental process as energy. More precisely, every psychic image from the point of view of psychoanalysis has not only a cognitive component, but also an energy component. However, the analysis of the content of consciousness is not a cognitive line, but an affective one. It is no accident that a special role in psychoanalysis is assigned to the symbolization of mental processes. In this case, any action or word is regarded as a symbol of forbidden desire or traumatic experience.
Thus, in comparison, for example, with associative psychology, psychoanalysis increases the dimension of the human psyche due to the formation of a second, symbolic plan.
Based on this view of the development of the child's psyche, an understanding of psychotherapeutic procedures is under construction, in which the main task is to free the child from cathected energy. In a certain sense, on the same principle, the understanding of the child's play as a process of eradicating traumatic experiences is built. In this way, a certain position of the adult in relation to the child is set as a person contributing to the relaxed emotional development of the latter. This position is attributed to an adult beginning with the first minutes of a child's life.
As noted above, psychoanalysis arose as a result of the transformation of associative psychology. There is nothing surprising in that the psychoanalytic theory contains a number of features characteristic of the associative point of view. First of all, it is necessary to avenge the preservation of the basic concepts of associative psychology, such as the "image", "representation" and & quot; association & quot ;. These concepts allow us to say that the psyche is viewed from the point of view of psychoanalysis as a discrete entity, so that it becomes possible to find its separate elements (for example, traumatic experiences) that change the whole psyche to the child. Similarly, it can be said that a characteristic technique in the study of the psyche is a method that makes a person turn to the content of his own psyche through the analysis of utterances and behavior. The process of development in psychoanalysis is understood as an externally conditioned process, entirely dependent on the nature of the interaction of the adult and the child.
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Protective mechanisms - ways to recycle impressions in the mind of a person, helping the Ego avoid conflicts between Id and Superego. First of all, such include repression (suppression), compensation, projection, regression, sublimation.
Id (It) is the source of activity that contains the energy necessary for various activities, functioning according to the principle of pleasure.
Cathexis is the process of linking the Id energy with the image of an object.
The principle of the unconscious in the psyche. According to this principle, the psyche is not identical to consciousness, but is also determined by unconscious processes.
The principle of the discrete structure of the psyche. In accordance with this principle, the psyche is determined by a combination of elements (psychoanalysis, for example, consists of conscious and unconscious images and impressions).
The principle of the closed mind for the external observer - according to this principle, a person can not go beyond his consciousness, so he can know it only during self-observation.
Superego (Super-Self) - part of the psyche that requires satisfaction of desires in accordance with accepted social norms.
The ego (I) is part of the psyche that develops from the id, existing according to the laws of reality.
Oedipus complex (Oedipus conflict) - the experience faced by on infantile-genital stage boy with one hand, wishing to subdue the mother, and on the other - are afraid of a stronger father. A similar experience for girls is called the Electra complex.
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