ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES AND ITS INFORMATION SUPPORT
As a result of mastering the material of section I the student must:
• the contents of the basic concepts & quot; system & quot ;, & quot; management & quot ;, & quot; control system & quot ;;
• the structure of the control system and the designation of its components;
• the content and characteristics of managerial and office activities;
• problems of organizing office activities;
• the content of the concept & quot; document & quot; and the main characteristics of the document;
• content management activities documents;
• composition, properties and functions of the document management system;
• the structure and content of the regulatory framework for documenting managerial activities;
• the legal basis for standardization;
• the composition of state and international standards in the field of documenting management activities, classifiers of technical, economic and social information;
• the composition and content of all-Russian documentation systems and unified systems of management documentation;
be able to
• Identify the components of the control system;
• determine on a qualitative level the characteristics of office activities;
• to determine the qualitative level of the characteristics of documents;
• Define the content of document management activities;
• Definitions of those components of the regulatory framework for documenting managerial activities that regulate the management of documents for specific objects in their professional field;
• Identify the types of unified forms of industry documentation that are specific to specific objects of their professional field.
MANAGEMENT AND OFFICE ACTIVITY
Basic concepts of management activities
To determine the content of the concept & quot; management activity & quot; it is necessary to turn to the consideration of categories, one way or another related to the defined concept. The initial concept is the & quot; control system & quot ;.
The main constituent components here are the & quot; system & quot; and & quot; management & quot ;. For all the importance for modern science, they still do not have generally accepted formal definitions.
The concept of the " system & quot; It is widely distributed in the scientific literature on various branches of knowledge. There are conflicting interpretations of this concept, reflecting its various aspects. In the work of the philosopher AI Uemov, 34 different definitions of the concept "system" are given; - a consequence of the fundamental, limiting nature of generalization, which is hidden behind this word. Each author, defining this concept, emphasizes that side, those aspects that interest him and which he explores. Nevertheless, it is possible to formulate the requirements that an object must satisfy to be considered as a system.
First of all, it's the integrity of the object . Any formation, any set of objects can be called a system if its consideration as a whole is justified from any point of view and can help the researcher to answer the question posed, to solve the formulated task.
Naturally, the time of existence of such a system is the time during which the problem is posed and solved. The object forming the system continues to exist, but it will form another system in accordance with the new tasks of study. Thus, it is always necessary to determine the purpose of the study, the criterion that determines the existence of this object as a whole. The existence of such a criterion is the second necessary condition for considering an object as a system.
The third condition is the requirement that the object under consideration be a part, a subsystem of some larger system, which allows us to determine with what other objects and how it interacts.
The last, fourth condition necessary to consider an object as a system is the possibility of splitting it into parts, into subsystems. This makes it possible to find out which connections and interactions between the constituent elements of the object ensure its unity, existence as whole.
As an example illustrating the considered approach to defining the essence of the concept of "system", let us turn to the objects of industrial and economic nature.
All industrial and economic objects known to us in the course of their functioning act as integral entities (international and regional economic associations, national economy, industry, production association, trading company, industrial enterprise, shop, production site, etc.) , and with clearly defined boundaries (physical, legal, etc.).
The existence of production and economic objects as integral entities is determined primarily by their purpose, which ultimately consists in satisfying the material needs of society, and specific types of products and services are identified for each particular object.
Each production and economic object enters as an element in another system of economic and production nature, which determines the composition and types of its interactions with the environment, among which we can identify material, energy, information, etc.
In turn, each production and economic object consists of many different elements, the interaction of which ensures its existence and the fulfillment of its purpose within the society.
Thus, all the listed requirements for the consideration of an object as a system are met. Consequently, all production and economic objects are systems.
Such a consideration of objects of a different nature (scientific, military, cultural, etc.) leads to the same results.
The concept of management & quot ;, as well as the concept of & quot; system & quot ;, does not yet have a generally accepted definition, but nevertheless, in most cases, management processes can be distinguished.
If we analyze all the cases when we are able to do this, we will find out that management processes are associated with changes occurring in the system as a result of its interaction with the environment. Since every real system is open, i.e. interacts with the external environment, in so far as changes occur in it, which can have two extreme and opposite forms: degradation (destruction of the system) and development (complication of the system, accumulation of information). At the same time, a temporary equilibrium between the system and the environment is possible, thanks to which the system for a certain time either remains relatively unchanged, or experiences only reversible changes that do not violate its integrity.
The quantitative characteristic of the organization of the system is its entropy, the greater value of which corresponds to the lesser level of complexity and organization of the system. To ensure the preservation of the integrity of the system, processes that prevent the increase of entropy are necessary. These are the management processes, the common for which is their anti-entropic character. In this regard, the management process is, in essence, the antipode of the process of disorganization, it allows, depending on the specifics of specific systems, to stabilize the system, preserve its qualitative certainty, maintain its dynamic equilibrium with the environment, ensure the improvement of the system and the achievement of one or another useful effect. In short, control is to ensure that the entropy of the system is not increased.
As already noted, any real system interacts with the external environment, as a result of which changes take place of a different kind, manifested in the course of a certain process. This process of changing the system calls for management. Thus, at the heart of any control system is a process that requires management.
However, any process flow requires control, but only that which leads to an increase in entropy. In this connection, it is necessary to relate the nature of the changes underlying the process to the criterion of system quality, i.e. you need to determine the purpose of management. In this sense, control systems have a purpose.
Further, since the implementation of control processes is allocated to a separate function, then some elements of the system specialize in its execution. In connection with this, control systems have a certain structure, namely they consist of a controlled process and a control part. This provision is very important, since there are objects that for a certain period of time retain their qualitative certainty and without explicitly expressed control component. As a rule, these are simple enough physical objects (stone, chair, etc.), which we will not consider in the future.
The control part has certain effects on the controlled process in order to ensure, in accordance with the management goal, the qualitative certainty of the whole system remains. In order for the control part to manage, it needs to map the actual state of the controlled process for control purposes, so that the controlled process affects the control part. The impact of both parts on each other is carried out in the form of information transfer. Thus, there is always a closed information loop in the control system (Figure 1.1).
The one shown in Fig. 1.1 The scheme is of a general nature and is valid for any control system. The control part, in turn, consists of a number of elements, each of which performs a certain function in the implementation of the management process and is associated with other information links.
The elements include:
Fig. 1.1. General control system layout
They are connected to each other and to the external environment through transmission:
- information about the purposes of management;
- information about the state of the managed process;
- information about control actions.
In Fig. 1.2 represents the structure of the control system, taking into account the composition of the elements of the control part.
Fig. 1.2. The structure of the management system
A managed process can have a rather complex structure, conditioned by specific features of its flow, and consist of subprocesses that are relatively autonomous and interact in different ways with each other. Autonomy of subprocesses is expressed in their definite localization in time and space, the presence of their own criteria for the quality of functioning and determines, therefore, their own control parts.
The complex configuration of the controlled process generates a corresponding complication of the control part of the control system, leading to the appearance of additional coordinating elements, often several levels. We can talk about the relative independence of the governing part already with its own functioning criteria, complex structure, principles and laws of internal existence, ie. it is already more about the control system.
And this means that the functioning of such a system determines a specific type of activity, different from other (generated by a controlled process), management activity.
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