Prospects for the development of social journalism
We touched on one of the most painful issues for sociogy journalism. Its future depends on the content and content of the work: whether the authors imitate social research, using unreasonable statistics, or whether they deepen their knowledge of the essence of phenomena and processes of social life. The authoritative sociologist of journalism P. II offers his solution to this problem. Kirichek. In his opinion, the scientific agreement on social journalism as a newly opened media subsystem has been achieved, approbation of its definition (reproduced by us above) de facto took place. Now we need to move on to describe the kind of journalism that makes up the spiritual & quot; product & quot; social journalism and which is qualitatively different from traditional publications. The generalized definition is: "This is a press speech on a socially significant topic, in the structure of which the actual (documentary) beginning prevails over the conceptual and figurative, and the used ... statistics are submitted, as a rule, in a commented form and performs, along with the argumentative , plot-forming and dominant-style roles & quot;
Let's think, however, about why in the domestic press such a journalism is difficult to get accustomed - in any case, is not widely spread? As always happens with complex phenomena of social and creative life, there are several reasons for this. However, we will surely exclude from their number the disinterest of the society. It basically needs reliable and sufficient information about its condition - otherwise it would be tantamount to abandoning the most valuable resource of social progress. Moreover, subjectively ordinary members of the public are opposed to tendentious and antisocial journalism. We have at our disposal records of the statements of participants in focus groups held within the framework of the Federal Target Program "Building Tolerant Consciousness Instances and Preventing Extremism in Russian Society for 2001-2005". Among other subjects of discussion he was asked the question: "What impact on the degree of aggression in society is provided by the media?" Let's get acquainted with some judgments (statements are given with minimal stylistic corrections).
"The media is undoubtedly a tool for inciting intolerance ... The most powerful weapon that beats spirituality is our media ...".
& quot; On television, each other is killed, destroyed, deceived by all means. The series is a briefing on how to act in such a society so that you are not caught ... In the news, the main theme is crime, murders are always in the foreground, good news, usually at the end of issues. Bad news is presented emotionally, brightly, which affects the growth of aggression ... People who are dissatisfied with their lives, see a lot of violence in the media, thus, the media are the impetus for the development of intolerance. People direct their displeasure at what the media show ... & quot;
& quot; These are channels for introducing intolerance. Now it is impossible to put a normal child in front of the TV, because there are constantly showing scenes of murder, violence. This is psychophysiological aggression ... Raising my own child, I cleaned the TV in general; I buy him cassettes with tales and tutorials ... & quot;
About 90 percent of all information on television is aggressive information; broadcasts, telling about the good, bright, necessary, very little. For each social layer, you can increase the level of such information ... Channels either compete for political voices, or, as entertainment programs, simply attract attention. But, attracting attention, the media does not educate a person, as they did before, but could bring up tolerance and awareness of behavior ... ".
& quot; All of our media today are state-owned, all kinds of corporations are just a fig leaf to cover up this fact. For everything that happens here, the state, its specific bodies are responsible. We do not deal with public television or the private press proper, the press conducts a certain state policy ... ".
As it is not difficult to see, the council of representatives of the public is unanimous in determining the diagnosis: the press generates aggressiveness in the minds and actions of the population. The most significant, in our opinion, lies in the fact that the idea of confrontation of the intentions, efforts and products of journalists - of social reality is expressed more or less clearly. The reality in this case is represented by the actual state of affairs in the society (the subjects and eventual saturation of publications), the expectations of citizens from the press (not to provoke aggressiveness, but to cultivate tolerance), a measure of contentment and the measure of their use ("I removed the TV in general")./p>
True, indulging the tastes of the audience can be just the reason for the spread of superficial and clamorous press. Researchers note with alarm that our contemporary, contrary to hopes, has turned into an enlightened individual rather than an enlightened individual. He is a conformist, content with the stereotypes that the press imposes on him, and she is also brought up in a conformist spirit. But if the reader is indeed so compassionate, socially responsible publicists have a chance to "re-educate" overly gullible fellow citizens and instill in them an interest in their products. In addition, as has long been well known to specialists, the quality press, because of its typological properties, is written to lag behind the mass circulation and consumer demand.
The obstacle to the development of social journalism is the servicing of the interests of elites, the state, owners, which has become a sad fact of media practice, up to the execution of direct orders for tendentious publications. Naturally, there is no question of finding a truth based on analysis of documents here. However, this barrier is overcome, provided that the journalistic community will make strong-willed efforts to achieve true independence, about which it so often and enthusiastically conducts public discussions. Symptoms of corresponding changes in the moods and behavior of press employees have already emerged. Thus, observers drew attention to the characteristic change in roles in the triad media - government - the public. In public life, all more often the inability of parties and state institutions to fulfill all the promises given to voters - sociologists call this effect "overload." Then the media are involved in an active political and social process, taking on the functions of organizing social action, at least in the form of initiating political debate on topical issues of practice. So there is a tendency for the emergence (or rather the revival) of journalism, which not only illuminates events, but also actively participates in their creation, tries not only to analyze the surrounding reality, but also to influence its development. The noted trend is manifested both at the federal and regional levels.
Here, however, the & quot; unexpected & quot; and uncomfortable for the publicists themselves the question of how they are ready to accept the postulates of journalism. Before us is the smallest "but", in which, but a well-known proverb, fits all Paris.
One-time effort of will or emotional impulse such a transition will not be given. It can be accomplished only as a result of a profound reconfiguration of the entire professional "mechanism", which requires long and thorough training. But even this is not enough - resources of a personal property that are adequate to the task are also needed. Socio-journalistic culture of labor is formed as an integral set of characteristics, in which the materialist world view is inextricably linked with the technology of collecting information and even with the manner of presentation. We refer to the thought of the researchers of the stylistics of speech about how the public and individual motives sound differently in the text. In journalism, "two faces constitute the essence of the category of the author - a social person and a private person. & lt; ... & gt; So, a social person in the structure of the author's category necessarily assumes a social analysis ... an objectively subjective attitude toward reality, which, as a rule, manifests itself in a weak author's modality, in the predominance of we -proposals and some other features. A person is private ... assumes accordingly an analysis from the position of a private person, a subjectively objective attitude to reality, which is reflected in speech usually in high authorial modality, predominance of i-sentences, etc.
It is artificially designed such a socially oriented text to make it organic, without "patches" and stretching is extremely difficult, if not impossible. And the intense rhythm of the editorial life does not leave time for such cosmetic operations. In literature, a very productive proposal was expressed to consider, in the light of the journalist's social culture, also the actual act of creation, i.e. the creation of works under the influence of seemingly only illumination. We can not ignore the fact that in the process of composing the text, the author is guided by intuition rather than by the correct algorithm (we are talking about a truly author's work, and not about falsified by standard scheme fakes). However, the quality itself " professional intuition richer than the thicker underlying knowledge stock, the more flexibility of thinking. Intellectual preparation for such interaction with reality is the formation of a mobile consciousness, which acts as an open system, actively absorbing new facts and meanings. And vice versa: any kind of dogmatism, predetermination in the mind and feelings of a journalist creates subjectivity in his professional practice.
The university is creating the optimal environment for educating a journalist who perceives the world as an objectively multicolored but comprehensible picture. Saying this, we proceed from a number of universally recognized characteristics of the university. Firstly, diversity lies in its very structure as a determining principle: it means the combination of a multitude of faculties, academic disciplines, personalities, sources, with which the student is required to become acquainted. Secondly, the independence of the thinking personality and political pluralism are embedded in the & quot; genotype & quot; university, which, as a rule, does not exist in a specific wording, one way or another, expressing the civil preferences of its leadership. Third, science (ideally) instills in the novice publicist the skill of unbiased knowledge, as well as encourages the use of precise methods of analysis.
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