Basic principles and structure of social management
Resolving social problems and transforming social reality can not be done without taking into account and respecting the basic principles of social management:
- the principle of scientific substantiation of ways to solve identified problems;
- the principle of social appropriateness and purposefulness, which implies the correspondence of expected effects to the normative (value) goals of the development of a given society, a given social community;
- the principle of socio-reproductive value and proportionality of the projected changes to man, his physiological, mental and social nature;
- the principle of complexity, integrativity, comparison of different types of models, technologies and approaches;
- the principle of realism and realizability, which presupposes not only an adequate promotion of goals, but also support for real, measurable social resources.
These principles are present (to a greater or lesser extent in various combinations) in setting goals and implementing social management methods in modern conditions.
Social management has a complex structure in the scale of the Russian Federation. First, the separation of the branches of power (legislative, executive and judicial) is a sign of the democratic structure of the state, each of which has its own tasks in the unified administrative space of the country. Secondly, the departmental division of executive bodies - in some cases in the form of an organizational and managerial vertical:
1) federal bodies of executive power in the field of social protection of the population, which have in their subordination a small number of federal social service institutions;
2) the regional bodies of social protection of the population, which are subordinated to almost all institutions of social services in the corresponding territory.
When implementing the mechanism for the transfer of authority, social services can also be subordinated to local self-government bodies, and the means for their maintenance come from the regional budget in the form of subventions.
At the federal level, the bodies authorized in the field of social protection of the population were divided into three formally independent bodies: ministries, federal agencies and federal services, which were supposed to fulfill their own powers and not duplicate each other's functions. However, until now it is not possible to distinguish clearly the subjects of their knowledge.
At the regional level, there can be one body authorized in the field of social protection of the population (ministry, department, committee, administration, central administration). Such a body can carry out tasks to manage social protection of the population in parallel with the implementation of other tasks (for example, with the organization of health care, regulation of labor relations, etc.). Finally, in the United States, the tasks of social protection and social services for the population can be divided between two or more public authorities (for example, in Moscow, the activities of family support centers, children are assigned to the Department of Family and Youth Policy, in the Samara region in parallel with the General Directorate of Social a separate department for family and children affairs was created, etc.).
In the local government there is a post of deputy head of administration for social issues and sometimes a department that deals with solving these social issues.
Thus, in the presence of a single structural basis of social management, the uniform structure of the subsystems and elements of social management in the conditions of the federal organization of the state structure of our country is absent.
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